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Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Linked to Some Verses from Qur-an

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rashed@mutah.edu.jo

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Some Qur'anic verses and their interpretation is incorporated into this topic, which is taken primarily from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (httpCosmic microwave background radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

bkg3

The CMBR is not even in the optical range.

(Omari 2002):

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [. (110) : ( ) .... : ( ) : 111)-(114 115)-(117 . 118)(119 . ( ) : ڡ 120)-(122.

(Red Shift) (123) . ˡ (123). ڡ ɡ (Cluster): ( * ). ( : ) . ڡ (124): ( ) ( 32 ).

( ) ( ) : . ( ) (114-111).

: ( ) [ 22 ]. ѡ ( ) ɡ . ɡ ( ) [ 48 ]. ѡ ǡ ( ) . : ( ) [ 9 ]. . : ( ) [ 18 ]. ɡ ȡ . : ( ) [ 94]. ݡ . ͡ . ( ) . ɡ . ( * * * * ) [ 82-78 ] . . . ɡ ( ) ϡ (128). (129) ( ): " . ". (120-122).

( * ) [ 27-28] ߡ . ɡ ( ) . .

: ( ) [ 41 11 ] (130).

Ln (41*11/2) /2 = 2.71

. () ( * * ) [ 27-29] .

(131). (annealing) (131). . ( ) [ 28] ϡ . : (132). . . . ( ) [ 12]. ( ) ( ) [ 10] . . . ( * ) [ 28-29] ( ) (133) .

Cosmic microwave background radiation

In cosmology, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (also CMBR, CBR, MBR, and relic radiation) is a form of electromagnetic radiation filling the universe.[1] With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is pitch black ( ).

( ) [ 29].

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. [29] Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out (with sun light).

( * ) [ 3-4].

(Optical) .

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The verse declares that it is impossible to detect any optical variations from Samaa'. Today, the CMB radiation is very cold, only 2.725 above absolute zero, thus this radiation shines primarily in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is invisible to the naked eye. However, it fills the universe and can be detected everywhere we look. In fact, if we could see microwaves, the entire sky would glow with a brightness that was astonishingly uniform in every direction. With a radio telescope, there is a faint background glow, almost exactly the same in all directions, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum, hence the name cosmic microwave background radiation.

( * ) [ 3-4].

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The CMB's discovery in 1964 by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson[2] was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s, and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize.

The CMBR is well explained by the Big Bang model: When the universe was young, before the formation of stars and planets, it was smaller, much hotter,

: ( ) [ 30]. ( 2004 : ).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

Universe was filled with a uniform glow from its white-hot fog of hydrogen plasma.

( ) [ 11 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

As the universe expanded, both the plasma and the radiation filling it grew cooler.

Expansion is referred to by:

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

Cooling is referred to by:

. () :

The temperature of Samaa - Firmament was hot. It then cooled down due to expansion, as indicated by the verse:

( * * ) [ 27-29] ( 2002 : ).

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. [29] Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out (with sun light).

When the universe cooled enough, stable atoms could form. These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog. This is indicated by the verse:

( ) [ 30].

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

The photons that existed at that time have been propagating ever since, though growing fainter and less energetic, since the exact same photons fill a greater and greater universe. This is the source for the term relic radiation, another name for the CMBR.

Precise measurements of cosmic background radiation are critical to cosmology, since any proposed model of the universe must explain this radiation. The CMBR has a thermal black body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, thus the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9 mm wavelength.[nb 1]

(good emitter) : ( ) ( 11) .

The blackbody is characterized by being a good emitter, which is likely to be among things indicated by the following verse:

(By the Firmament which returns ), (Surah 86, verse 11)

The blackbody is characterized by being hot; in order to achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. This is indicated by the verse:

( * ) [ 41 11-12 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

The glow is almost but not quite uniform in all directions, and shows a very specific pattern equal to that expected if the inherent randomness of a red-hot gas is blown up to the size of the universe. In particular, the spatial power spectrum (how much difference is observed versus how far apart the regions are on the sky) contains small anisotropies, or irregularities, which vary with the size of the region examined. They have been measured in detail, and match what would be expected if small thermal fluctuations had expanded to the size of the observable space we can detect today.

:

It is impossible to observe Samaa - Firmament - in the visual band as indicated by the verse:

( * ) [ 3-4].

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

(94-89) (Homogeneous) (Isotropic). ( ) (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation) ( ) (Mather et al. 1999, ApJ, 512, 511):

( ). : 0.0002 (http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/wmap_five.html). (125).

(2.7K) : 3 18 12. :

Among the miraculous aspects of this verse is that the location of the word (Tafawote: flaw) determines the temperature (2.7K) of the CMBR. The number of the verse is 3, and it has a total of 18 words, and the order of the word (Tafawote: flaw) is 12. Calculation based on words counting gives

:

Calculation based on letters counting gives:

This number is almost the same as the temperature of the CMBR.

.

Although many different processes might produce the general form of a black body spectrum, no model other than the Big Bang has yet explained the fluctuations. As a result, most cosmologists consider the Big Bang model of the universe to be the best explanation for the CMBR.

Features

The cosmic microwave background is isotropic to roughly one part in 100,000: the root mean square variations are only 18 K.[4][nb 2] The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has carefully measured the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

The following verse declares that it is impossible to detect any optical variations from Samaa' (Firmament, sky):

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The FIRAS project members compared the CMB with an internal reference black body and the spectra agreed to within the experimental error. They concluded that any deviations from the black body form that might still remain undetected in the CMB spectrum over the wavelength range from 0.5 to 5 mm must have a weighted rms value of at most 50 parts per million (0.005%) of the CMB peak brightness.[5] This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black body spectrum in nature.[3]

( * ) [ 3-4].

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

:

( * ) [ 27-28]

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.

ߡ .

The cosmic microwave background is perhaps the main prediction of the Big Bang model. In addition, Inflationary Cosmology predicts that after about 10−37 seconds[6] the nascent universe underwent exponential growth that smoothed out nearly all inhomogeneities.[nb 3][7]

This is indicated by the verses:

( * ) [ 41 11-12 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

Ln (41*12/2) /2 = 2.753

Ln (7*2) = 2.64

"And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it". This interprets as: ALLAH constructs Sama via expansion ([i]). ALLAH create and elevate Sama with vast force and power, and We (ALLAH) are able to expand it as We desire ([ii]). We are able to expand, as We expand its construction ([iii]).

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

Ln (51*47*48*7) = 13.6

Is close to the age of the universe; in units of Billion years.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out!" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

( * ) [ 27-28].

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.) (S. 79)

The exponential growth was followed by symmetry breaking; a type of phase transition that set the fundamental forces and elementary particles in their present form. After 10−6 seconds, the early universe was made up of a hot plasma of photons, electrons, and baryons. The photons were constantly interacting with the plasma through Thomson scattering.

( ) ( 29).

Ln (29*7)/2 = 2.66

Ln (7*2) = 2.64

: ( . : " : ɿ : ( ) ߡ ( 1 270.)". :( ( 728 ) ʡ ( 1416 - 1996 ). 1 210. ϡ . 1 78. . 1 273.) ( ).

[29] It is He Who hath created for you all things that were coupled on Ardh (interior part of universe, or coupled seven Ardhean); then He turned to the heaven and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge.

( ) [ 30].

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

As the universe expanded, adiabatic cooling caused the plasma to cool until it became favorable for electrons to combine with protons and form hydrogen atoms. This recombination event happened at around 3000 K or when the universe was approximately 379,000 years old.[8][nb 4] At this point, the photons scattered off the now electrically-neutral atoms and began to travel freely through space, resulting in the decoupling of matter and radiation.[9]

( ) [ 30].

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

The color temperature of the photons has continued to diminish ever since; now down to 2.725 K, their temperature will continue to drop as the universe expands.

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

ɡ ( ) (128). (129) ( ): " . ". (120-122) ( 2002 : ).

47]. We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it

According to the Big Bang model, the radiation from the sky we measure today comes from a spherical surface called the surface of last scattering. This represents the collection of spots in space at which the decoupling event is believed to have occurred, less than 400,000 years after the Big Bang,[10] and at a point in time such that the photons from that distance have just reached observers.

( ) [ 11 ]

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

The estimated age of the Universe is 13.75 billion years.[11] However, because the Universe has continued expanding since that time, the comoving distance from the Earth to the edge of the observable universe is now at least 46.5 billion light years.[12][13]

The Big Bang theory suggests that the cosmic microwave background fills all of observable space, and that most of the radiation energy in the universe is in the cosmic microwave background,[14] which makes up a fraction of roughly 610−5 of the total density of the universe.[nb 5]

Two of the greatest successes of the big bang theory are its prediction of its almost perfect black body spectrum and its detailed prediction of the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.

( * ) [ 3-4].

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe has precisely measured these anisotropies over the whole sky down to angular scales of 0.2 degrees.[15] These can be used to estimate the parameters of the standard Lambda-CDM model of the big bang. Some information, such as the shape of the Universe, can be obtained straightforwardly from the cosmic microwave background, while others, such as the Hubble constant, are not constrained and must be inferred from other measurements.[15] The latter value gives the redshift of galaxies (interpreted as the recessional velocity) as a proportion of their distance

Relationship to the Big Bang

Measurements of the CMB have made the inflationary Big Bang theory the standard model of the earliest eras of the universe.[52]

( * ) [ 11-12 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

"And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it". This interprets as: ALLAH constructs Sama via expansion ([iv]). ALLAH create and elevate Sama with vast force and power, and We (ALLAH) are able to expand it as We desire ([v]). We are able to expand, as We expand its construction ([vi]).

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

(47.5) :

The average value for the numbers of these two verses, 47.5, is equal to the present value of the average percentages of dark matter and dark energy:

(23% + 72%)/2= 47.5%

( * ) [ 27-28].

( What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.) (S. 79, V. 27-28)

79/28 =2.82

This theory predicts that the initial conditions for the universe are originally random in nature, and follow a roughly Gaussian probability distribution, which when graphed in cross-section forms bell-shaped curves. This is among various things being indicated by the verses:

:

( * ) [ 9-10].

This likely to be indicated by the verses:

[9] "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the early Universe; large scale structure of dark matter) in two Days (periods)? and do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." [10] He set on the (Ardh). Like Mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on the Ardh, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in precisely four Days (periods) for those who seek knowledge, and also in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance). " (Surah 41, Verses 9-10).

( 2004): ( ) (Dark matter) ( ). () (28 60 127). (28). (). () () (28).

By analyzing this distribution at different frequencies, a spectral density or power spectrum is generated. The power spectrum of these fluctuations has been calculated, and agrees with the observations, although certain observables, for example the overall amplitude of the fluctuations, are more or less free parameters of the cosmic inflation model.[53] Therefore, meaningful statements about the inhomogeneities in the universe need to be statistical in nature. This leads to cosmic variance in which the uncertainties in the variance of the largest scale fluctuations observed in the universe are difficult to accurately compare to theory. The model uses a Gaussian random field with a nearly-scale invariant or Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum to represent the primeval inhomogeneities.[54][55]

Temperature

The cosmic microwave background radiation and the cosmological red shift are together regarded as the best available evidence for the Big Bang theory. The discovery of the CMB in the mid-1960s curtailed interest in alternatives such as the steady state theory.[56] The CMB gives a snapshot of the Universe when, according to standard cosmology, the temperature dropped enough to allow electrons and protons to form hydrogen atoms, thus making the universe transparent to radiation. When it originated some 380,000 years after the Big Bangthis time is generally known as the "time of last scattering" or the period of recombination or decouplingthe temperature of the Universe was about 4,000 K. This corresponds to an energy of about 0.25 eV, which is much less than the 13.6 eV ionization energy of hydrogen.[57]

( ) [ 11 ]

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

Since decoupling, the temperature of the background radiation has dropped by a factor of roughly 1,100[58] due to the expansion of the Universe. As the Universe expands, the CMB photons are redshifted, making the radiation's temperature inversely proportional to a parameter called the Universe's scale length. The temperature Tr of the CMB as a function of redshift, z, can be shown to be proportional to the temperature of the CMB as observed in the present day (2.728K):

Tr = 2.728(1 + z)

For details about the reasoning that the radiation is evidence for the Big Bang, see Cosmic background radiation of the Big Bang.

Primary anisotropy

300px-PowerSpectrumExt

The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature anisotropy in terms of the angular scale (or multipole moment). The data shown come from the WMAP (2006), Acbar (2004) Boomerang (2005), CBI (2004), and VSA (2004) instruments. Also shown is a theoretical model (solid line).

The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background is divided into two sorts: primary anisotropy, due to effects which occur at the last scattering surface and before; and secondary anisotropy, due to effects such as interactions with hot gas or gravitational potentials, between the last scattering surface and the observer.

The structure of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies is principally determined by two effects: acoustic oscillations and diffusion damping (also called collisionless damping or Silk damping). The acoustic oscillations arise because of a competition in the photon-baryon plasma in the early universe. The pressure of the photons tends to erase anisotropies, whereas the gravitational attraction of the baryonsmoving at speeds much slower than lightmakes them tend to collapse to form dense haloes. These two effects compete to create acoustic oscillations which give the microwave background its characteristic peak structure. The peaks correspond, roughly, to resonances in which the photons decouple when a particular mode is at its peak amplitude. This is referred to by the verse (Omari):

( ) ( 7): (compressions) (rarefactions). ҡ . . (rarefied) . (Pattern) CMB ( ).

The peaks contain interesting physical signatures. The angular scale of the first peak determines the curvature of the Universe (but not the topology of the Universe). The next peakratio of the odd peaks to the even peaksdetermines the reduced baryon density. The third peak can be used to pull information about the dark matter density:

( * ) ( 69 38-39)

The locations of the peaks also give important information about the nature of the primordial density perturbations. There are two fundamental brands of density perturbationscalled adiabatic and isocurvature. A general density perturbation is a mixture of both, and different theories that purport to explain the primordial density perturbation spectrum predict different mixtures.

Adiabatic density perturbations

the fractional overdensity in each matter component (baryons, photons ...) is the same. That is, if there is 1% more energy in baryons than average in one spot, then with a pure adiabatic density perturbations there is also 1% more energy in photons, and 1% more energy in neutrinos, than average. Cosmic inflation predicts that the primordial perturbations are adiabatic.

( ) .

This is likely to be among things indicated by the following verse:

(By the Firmament which returns (in its round)), (Surah 86, verse 11)

Isocurvature density perturbations

The sum of the fractional overdensities is zero. That is, a perturbation where at some spot there is 1% more energy in baryons than average, 1% more energy in photons than average, and 2% lear energy in neutrinos than average, would be a pure isocurvature perturbation. Cosmic strings would produce mostly isocurvature primordial perturbations.

The CMB spectrum is able to distinguish these two because these two brands of perturbations produce different peak locations. Isocurvature density perturbations produce a series of peaks whose angular scales (l-values of the peaks) are roughly in the ratio 1:3:5:..., while adiabatic density perturbations produce peaks whose locations are in the ratio 1:2:3:...[59] Observations are consistent with the primordial density perturbations being entirely adiabatic: (11 ) ( ), providing key support for inflation, and ruling out many models of structure formation involving, for example, cosmic strings.

Collisionless damping is caused by two effects, when the treatment of the primordial plasma as fluid begins to break down:

                     the increasing mean free path of the photons as the primordial plasma becomes increasingly rarefied in an expanding universe

                     the finite depth of the last scattering surface (LSS), which causes the mean free path to increase rapidly during decoupling, even while some Compton scattering is still occurring.

( ) [ 30]. ( 2004 : ).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

The Arabic word (Ratq), implies that at early stages of Universe, matter used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution with high density, and both matter and radiation were coupled together. Later on, God clove them asunder (Fatq): Implying that matter had started clumping and holding together to help forming seven distinct firmaments (Samawat) and seven interior levels of Ardh (very likely to be seven distinct shells of dark matter). Also, later the universe became transparent, and matter is no more coupled to radiation (Fatq). Consequently Sama (Upper part of Universe) and Ardh (Interior part of Universe) are decoupled; each into seven distinct and probably concentric spherical shells. The seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh: Ground) mentioned by authentic hadiths (Prophet's sayings) are seven distinct levels. It is possible that galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed over Ardhean. As such, Ardhean represent a major part of the cosmic dark matter that supports forming gravitationally bounded galaxies and clusters ([vii]).

The above two effects contribute about equally to the suppression of anisotropies on small scales, and give rise to the characteristic exponential damping tail seen in the very small angular scale anisotropies.

The depth of the LSS refers to the fact that the decoupling of the photons and baryons does not happen instantaneously, but instead requires an appreciable fraction of the age of the Universe up to that era. One method to quantify exactly how long this process took uses the photon visibility function (PVF). This function is defined so that, denoting the PVF by P(t), the probability that a CMB photon last scattered between time t and t+dt is given by P(t)dt.

The maximum of the PVF (the time where it is most likely that a given CMB photon last scattered) is known quite precisely. The first-year WMAP results put the time at which P(t) is maximum as 37214 ka.[60] This is often taken as the "time" at which the CMB formed. However, to figure out how long it took the photons and baryons to decouple, we need a measure of the width of the PVF. The WMAP team finds that the PVF is greater than half of its maximum value (the "full width at half maximum", or FWHM) over an interval of 1155 ka. By this measure, decoupling took place over roughly 115,000 years, and when it was complete, the universe was roughly 487,000 years old.

Late time anisotropy

Since the CMB came into existence, it has apparently been modified by several subsequent physical processes, which are collectively referred to as late-time anisotropy, or secondary anisotropy. When the CMB photons became free to travel unimpeded, ordinary matter in the universe was mostly in the form of neutral hydrogen and helium atoms. However, observations of galaxies today seem to indicate that most of the volume of the intergalactic medium (IGM) consists of ionized material (since there are few absorption lines due to hydrogen atoms). This implies a period of reionization during which some of the material of the universe was broken into hydrogen ions.

The CMB photons scatter off free charges such as electrons that are not bound in atoms. In an ionized universe, such charged particles have been liberated from neutral atoms by ionizing (ultraviolet) radiation. Today these free charges are at sufficiently low density in most of the volume of the Universe that they do not measurably affect the CMB. However, if the IGM was ionized at very early times when the universe was still denser, then there are two main effects on the CMB:

1.                  Small scale anisotropies are erased. (Just as when looking at an object through fog, details of the object appear fuzzy.)

2.                  The physics of how photons scatter offrom free electrons (Thomson scattering) induces polarization anisotropies on large angular scales. This broad angle polarization is correlated with the broad angle temperature perturbation.

Both of these effects have been observed by the WMAP spacecraft, providing evidence that the universe was ionized at very early times, at a redshift more than 17. The detailed provenance of this early ionizing radiation is still a matter of scientific debate. It may have included starlight from the very first population of stars (population III stars), supernovae when these first stars reached the end of their lives, or the ionizing radiation produced by the accretion disks of massive black holes.

The time following the emission of the Cosmic Microwave Backgroundand before the observation of the first starsis semi-humorously referred to by cosmologists as the dark age, and is a period which is under intense study by astronomers (See 21 centimeter radiation).

Two other effects which occurred between reionization and our observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and which appear to cause anisotropies, include the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, where a cloud of high energy electrons scatters the radiation, transferring some of its energy to the CMB photons, and the Sachs-Wolfe effect, which causes photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background to be gravitationally redshifted or blueshifted due to changing gravitational fields.

300px-WMAP_3yr_EE

E polarization measurements as of March 2006 in terms of angular scale (or multipole moment). The polarization is much more poorly measured than the temperature anisotropy.

Polarization

Main article: Polarization in astronomy

The cosmic microwave background is polarized at the level of a few microkelvins. There are two types of polarization, called E-modes and B-modes. This is in analogy to electrostatics, in which the electric field (E-field) has a vanishing curl and the magnetic field (B-field) has a vanishing divergence. The E-modes arise naturally from Thomson scattering in a heterogeneous plasma. The B-modes, which have not been measured and are thought to have an amplitude of at most a 0.1 K, are not produced from the plasma physics alone. They are a signal from cosmic inflation and are determined by the density of primordial gravitational waves. Detecting the B-modes will be extremely difficult, particularly given that the degree of foreground contamination is unknown, and the weak gravitational lensing signal mixes the relatively strong E-mode signal with the B-mode signal.[61]

Microwave background observations

Main article: Cosmic microwave background experiments

Subsequent to the discovery of the CMB, hundreds of cosmic microwave background experiments have been conducted to measure and characterize the signatures of the radiation. The most famous experiment is probably the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite that orbited in 19891996 and which detected and quantified the large scale anisotropies at the limit of its detection capabilities. Inspired by the initial COBE results of an extremely isotropic and homogeneous background, a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments quantified CMB anisotropies on smaller angular scales over the next decade.

( * ) [ 3-4].

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The primary goal of these experiments was to measure the angular scale of the first acoustic peak, for which COBE did not have sufficient resolution.

( ) ( 7): (compressions) (rarefactions). ҡ .

These measurements were able to rule out cosmic strings as the leading theory of cosmic structure formation, and suggested cosmic inflation was the right theory.

( * ) [ 11-12 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

"And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it". This interprets as: ALLAH constructs Sama via expansion ([viii]). ALLAH create and elevate Sama with vast force and power, and We (ALLAH) are able to expand it as We desire ([ix]). We are able to expand, as We expand its construction ([x]).

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

( * ) [ 27-28].

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.

During the 1990s, the first peak was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of approximately one degree. Together with other cosmological data, these results implied that the geometry of the Universe is flat. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array, Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI). DASI made the first detection of the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum.

In June 2001, NASA launched a second CMB space mission, WMAP, to make much more precise measurements of the great scale anisotropies over the full sky. The first results from this mission, disclosed in 2003, were detailed measurements of the angular power spectrum to below degree scales, tightly constraining various cosmological parameters. The results are broadly consistent with those expected from cosmic inflation as well as various other competing theories, and are available in detail at NASA's data bank for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) (see links below). Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the great angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB (structures about as broad in the sky as the moon), it did not have the angular resolution to measure the smaller scale fluctuations which had been observed by former ground-based interferometers.

A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor, launched in May, 2009. Planck employs both HEMT radiometers as well as bolometer technology and will measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP. Unlike the previous two space missions, Planck is run by the ESA (the European Space Agency). Its detectors got a trial run at the Antarctic Viper telescope as ACBAR (Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver) experimentwhich has produced the most precise measurements at small angular scales to dateand at the Archeops balloon telescope.

Additional ground-based instruments such as the South Pole Telescope in Antarctica and the proposed Clover Project, Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the QUIET telescope in Chile will provide additional data not available from satellite observations, possibly including the B-mode polarization.

Data reduction and analysis

Raw CMBR data coming down from the space vehicle (i.e., WMAP) contain foreground effects that completely obscure the fine-scale structure of the Cosmic Microwave background. The fine-scale structure is superimposed on the raw CMBR data but is too small to be seen at the scale of the raw data. The most prominent of the foreground effects is the dipole anisotropy caused by the Sun's motion relative to the CMBR background. The dipole anisotropy and others due to Earth's annual motion relative to the Sun and numerous microwave sources in the galactic plane and elsewhere must be subtracted out to reveal the extremely tiny variations characterizing the fine-scale structure of the CMBR background. This is obvious form the following verse:

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

The detail analysis of CMBR data to produce maps, an angular power spectrum, and ultimately cosmological parameters is a complicated, computationally difficult problem. Although computing a power spectrum from a map is in principle a simple Fourier transform, decomposing the map of the sky into spherical harmonics, in practice it is hard to take the effects of noise and foreground sources into account. In particular, these foregrounds are dominated by galactic emissions such free-free, synchrotron, and dust that emit in the microwave band; in practice, the galaxy has to be removed resulting in a CMB map that is not a full-sky map. In addition, point sources like galaxies and clusters represent another source of foreground which must be removed lest they distort the short scale structure of the CMB power spectrum.

Constraints on many cosmological parameters can be obtained from their effects on the power spectrum, and results are often calculated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

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[i] ) See the following references:-

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, Abi Mohammed (546 Hijri) al-Muharur al-Wajeez fi Tafseer al-Kettab al-Aziz (1413 Hijri-1993) (The Editing Summary in the Interpretation of the Glorious Quran) Vol., 5:181.

- Abi Al-Abbas, Shehab ed-Din (1994) al-Dar al-Masoun fi Oloum al-Kettab al-Kaknoun. Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah. Six Parts; Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) An-Nahr al-Madd, vol. 5: Part 5: 244.

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, (546 Hijri), (1413 Hijri-1993), vol. 5:181.

- Shehab ed-Din (1994), Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) al-Bahr al-Muheet, Part 9: 560

 

[ii] ) See the following references:-

- as-Sammurgandi, Abi al-Layeth Nasser bin Mohammed (1993) Bahr al-Oulum (The Sea of Knowledge) Beirut, 3 Parts, Part 3: 280.

- al-Jouzi, Abi al-Faruj Jamal ed-Din (1987) Zad al-Maseer fi Elm at-Tafseer (The Provision of Walk in the Science of Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, 8 Parts, Part 7: 212.

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Khateeb, 1970, vol. 4: 529-39.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 4: 20.

- al-Razi, 1208, vol. 4: 227

[iii] ) See the following references:-

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Maourdi, Tasneef Abi al-Hasan al-Basri (364-450 Hijri) Revised and commented on by as-Siyyed bin Abdulraheem. Al-Nukat wal Oyoun: Tafseer al-Maourdi (Secrets - details - and the Eyes: al-Maourdis Interpretation). Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyeh. 6 volumes. Vol.5: 373-74.

- al-Nasseri, 1985, Part 6: 93.

 

[iv] ) See the following references:-

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, Abi Mohammed (546 Hijri) al-Muharur al-Wajeez fi Tafseer al-Kettab al-Aziz (1413 Hijri-1993) (The Editing Summary in the Interpretation of the Glorious Quran) Vol., 5:181.

- Abi Al-Abbas, Shehab ed-Din (1994) al-Dar al-Masoun fi Oloum al-Kettab al-Kaknoun. Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah. Six Parts; Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) An-Nahr al-Madd, vol. 5: Part 5: 244.

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, (546 Hijri), (1413 Hijri-1993), vol. 5:181.

- Shehab ed-Din (1994), Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) al-Bahr al-Muheet, Part 9: 560

 

[v] ) See the following references:-

- as-Sammurgandi, Abi al-Layeth Nasser bin Mohammed (1993) Bahr al-Oulum (The Sea of Knowledge) Beirut, 3 Parts, Part 3: 280.

- al-Jouzi, Abi al-Faruj Jamal ed-Din (1987) Zad al-Maseer fi Elm at-Tafseer (The Provision of Walk in the Science of Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, 8 Parts, Part 7: 212.

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Khateeb, 1970, vol. 4: 529-39.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 4: 20.

- al-Razi, 1208, vol. 4: 227

[vi] ) See the following references:-

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Maourdi, Tasneef Abi al-Hasan al-Basri (364-450 Hijri) Revised and commented on by as-Siyyed bin Abdulraheem. Al-Nukat wal Oyoun: Tafseer al-Maourdi (Secrets - details - and the Eyes: al-Maourdis Interpretation). Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyeh. 6 volumes. Vol.5: 373-74.

- al-Nasseri, 1985, Part 6: 93.

 

[vii] ) See the following references:-

- Omari, 2002; (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004).

- al-Sabouni, Mohammed Ali (1981). Mukhtaser Tafseer ibn Katheer (A Summary of Ibn Katheers Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Quran al-Kareem, 3 Parts; Vol. 2, 506.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 2: 570.

- Weinberg, Steven. The First Three Minutes, 6th printing 1984, USA, pp 48-49.

- al-Siyouti, Abdulhruhaman (911 Hijri) ad-Dur al-Menthour fi al-Tafseer al-Mathour (The Spreading Pearl in the Memorable Interpretation) (2nd. Ed. 1414 Hijri-1993), Part 1: 106-107.

[viii] ) See the following references:-

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, Abi Mohammed (546 Hijri) al-Muharur al-Wajeez fi Tafseer al-Kettab al-Aziz (1413 Hijri-1993) (The Editing Summary in the Interpretation of the Glorious Quran) Vol., 5:181.

- Abi Al-Abbas, Shehab ed-Din (1994) al-Dar al-Masoun fi Oloum al-Kettab al-Kaknoun. Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah. Six Parts; Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) An-Nahr al-Madd, vol. 5: Part 5: 244.

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, (546 Hijri), (1413 Hijri-1993), vol. 5:181.

- Shehab ed-Din (1994), Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) al-Bahr al-Muheet, Part 9: 560

[ix] ) See the following references:-

- as-Sammurgandi, Abi al-Layeth Nasser bin Mohammed (1993) Bahr al-Oulum (The Sea of Knowledge) Beirut, 3 Parts, Part 3: 280.

- al-Jouzi, Abi al-Faruj Jamal ed-Din (1987) Zad al-Maseer fi Elm at-Tafseer (The Provision of Walk in the Science of Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, 8 Parts, Part 7: 212.

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Khateeb, 1970, vol. 4: 529-39.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 4: 20.

- al-Razi, 1208, vol. 4: 227

[x] ) See the following references:-

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Maourdi, Tasneef Abi al-Hasan al-Basri (364-450 Hijri) Revised and commented on by as-Siyyed bin Abdulraheem. Al-Nukat wal Oyoun: Tafseer al-Maourdi (Secrets - details - and the Eyes: al-Maourdis Interpretation). Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyeh. 6 volumes. Vol.5: 373-74.

- al-Nasseri, 1985, Part 6: 93.