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Dark Energy Linked to Some Verses from Qur-an

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rashed@mutah.edu.jo

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Some Qur'anic verses and their interpretation are incorporated into this topic, which is taken primarily from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy#column-one#column-one).

The Article

In physical cosmology, astronomy and celestial mechanics, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.[1] Dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations and experiments that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 74% of the total mass-energy of the universe.[2]

Two proposed forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously,[3] and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space. Contributions from scalar fields that are constant in space are usually also included in the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is physically equivalent to vacuum energy. Scalar fields which do change in space can be difficult to distinguish from a cosmological constant because the change may be extremely slow.

High-precision measurements of the expansion of the universe are required to understand how the expansion rate changes over time. In general relativity, the evolution of the expansion rate is parameterized by the cosmological equation of state. Measuring the equation of state of dark energy is one of the biggest efforts in observational cosmology today.

Adding the cosmological constant to cosmology's standard FLRW metric leads to the Lambda-CDM model, which has been referred to as the "standard model" of cosmology because of its precise agreement with observations. Dark energy has been used as a crucial ingredient in a recent attempt[4] to formulate a cyclic model for the universe.

Evidence for dark energy

Supernovae

They measured that supernovas far away in the universe were accelerating away much faster than the ones nearby.

October 4, 2011 The discovery that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace was "astounding," the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences says. It suggests that "dark energy" is pushing the universe apart

.

2011 . " " .

 

In 1998, published observations of Type Ia supernovae ("one-A") by the High-z Supernova Search Team [5] followed in 1999 by the Supernova Cosmology Project [6] suggested that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Since then, these observations have been supported by several independent sources. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and the large scale structure of the cosmos as well as improved measurements of supernovae have been consistent with the Lambda-CDM model.[7]

Supernovae are useful for cosmology because they are excellent standard candles across cosmological distances. They allow the expansion history of the Universe to be measured by looking at the relationship between the distance to an object and its redshift, which gives how fast it is receding from us. The relationship is roughly linear, according to Hubble's law. It is relatively easy to measure redshift, but finding the distance to an object is more difficult. Usually, astronomers use standard candles: objects for which the intrinsic brightness, the absolute magnitude, is known. This allows the object's distance to be measured from its actually observed brightness, or apparent magnitude. Type Ia supernovae are the best-known standard candles across cosmological distances because of their extreme, and extremely consistent, brightness.

Recent observations of supernovae are consistent with a universe made up 71.3% of dark energy and 27.4% of a combination of dark matter and baryonic matter.[8]

Dark matter and Dark energy are referred to by the verses:

- ( * * ) ] 49-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

Examples of such pairs are: Dark matter (Sama Firmament -, and Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies) and Matter. Another pair is Dark energy and energy.

(47.5) :

The average value for the numbers of these two verses, 47.5, is equal to the present value of the average percentages of dark matter and dark energy:

(23% + 72%)/2= 47.5%

[9] "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the early Universe; large scale structure of dark matter) in two Days (periods)? and do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." [10] He set on the (Ardh). Like Mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on the Ardh, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in precisely four Days (periods) for those who seek knowledge, and also in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance). " (Surah 41, Verses 9-10).

( * ) ( 69 38-39)

"Furthermore I swear by what ye see * And what ye see not." (S. 69 V 38-39)

- ( * ) [ 36-37]

(Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge. * And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness.) (S. 36, V. 36-37)

- ( ) [ 12]

[12] That has created pairs in all things, and has made for you ships and cattle on which ye ride,) (S. 43, V. 12)

- ( ) [ 49].

[49] And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction. ) (S. 51, V. 49)

( )

( * ) [ 27-28]

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. ) (S. 79, V. 27)

( ) ( 7)

(And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice),) (S. 55, V. 7)

( ) ( 2)

(Allah is He Who raised the Samawat Firmaments - without any pillars that ye can see; then He established Himself on the Throne (of Authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the Signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.) (S. 13, V. 2)

( ).

( ) ( 10)

(He created the Samawat Firmaments - without any pillars that ye can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.) (S. 31, V. 10)

" " . ( ).

. ( ). .

ALLAH (GOD) have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, He indeed Have vast power; to create its vastness and continue to expand it, and on high hath He raised its canopy. This gives rise to the so called negative pressure (Dark energy); since Sama is a solid construction (roof) with no cracks, and completely covers and surrounds the universe. This is clearly indicated by the verses:

:

- ( ) 22 .

(Who has made the Ardh your couch, and the Sama Firmament - your canopy; ) (S. 2, V. 22).

- ( ) 29 .

(It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on Ardh; then He turned to the Sama and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge. ) (S. 2, V. 29)

- ( ) 32 .

(And We have made the Sama Firmament - as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)! ) (S. 21, V. 32)

- ( ) 104.

(The Day that We roll up the Sama Firmament - like a scroll rolled up for books (completed), even as We produced the first Creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfill it. ) (S. 21, V. 104)

- ( ) 65 .

) Seest thou not that Allah has made subject to you (men) all that is on the earth, and the ships that sail through the sea by His command? He withholds the Sama Firmament ; sky - (not rain as in yusuf Ali) from falling on the Ardh except by His leave: for Allah is Most Kind and Most Merciful to man. ) (S. 22, V. 65)

- ( ) 12.

) So He completed them as seven Samawat Firmaments - in two Days and He assigned to each Sama Firmament - its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge. ) (S. 41, V. 12)

- ( ) 6

) Do they not look at the Sama Firmaments ; sky - above them? How We have constructed it and adorned it, and there are no cracks (gaps) in it? ) (S. 50, V. 6)

- ( ) 37 .

(When the Sama Firmaments ; sky - is rent asunder, and it becomes red like ointment: ) (S. 55, V. 37)

- ( ) 4

(He it is Who created the Samawat Firmaments ; sky - and the Ardh in six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of authority). ) (S. 57, V. 4)

- ( ) 16.

)And the Sama Firmaments ; sky - will be rent asunder, for it will that Day be flimsy, ) (S. 69, V. 16)

- ( ) 25 .

)The Day the Sama Firmaments ; sky; heaven - shall be rent asunder with clouds, and angels shall be sent down, descending (in ranks), ) (S. 25, V. 25)

- ( ) 8 .

(The Day that the Sama Firmaments ; sky - will be like molten brass, ) (S. 70, V. 8)

- ( ) 18.

)Whereon the Sama Firmaments ; sky - will be cleft asunder? His Promise needs must be accomplished. ) (S. 73, V. 18)

- ( ) 9 .

(When the Sama Firmaments ; sky - is cleft asunder; ) (S. 77, V. 9)

- ( * ) 27 .

)What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Sama Firmaments ; sky - (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it. On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.) (S. 79, V. 27-28)

- ( ) 11 .

)When the Sama Firmaments ; sky, galaxies - is unveiled; ) (S. 81, V. 11)

- ( ) 1 .

(When the Sama Firmaments ; sky - is cleft asunder; ) (S. 82, V. 1)

- ( ) 1 .

)When the Sama Firmaments ; sky - is rent asunder, ) (S. 84, V. 1)

- ( ) 18 .

(And at the Sama Firmaments ; sky; galaxies -, how it is raised high? ) (S. 88, V. 18)

- ( ) 19 .

(And the Sama Firmaments - shall be opened and become doors,) (S. 78, V. 19)

- ( ) 40 .

(To those who reject Our Signs and treat them with arrogance, no opening will there be of the gates of Sama Firmaments ; sky; heaven -, nor will they enter the Garden, until the camel can pass through the eye of the needle: such is Our reward for those in sin. ) (S. 7, V. 40)

- ( ) 14.

(Even if We opened out to them a gate from Sama Firmaments ; sky -, and they were to continue ascending therein, . ) (S. 15, V. 14).

They will continue ascending due to the negative pressure; which overwhelm gravity.

- ( ) ( 11) .

(By the Sama Firmament; sky; earths atmosphere- which returns) (Surah 86, verse 11)

 

Also there are many Qur'anic verses in which the Arabic word Samaa' means Firmament (canopy); which is likely to be dark matter. Also the Arabic word Ardh means seven distinct layers of dark matter. Some of these verses are:

. . :

( ) ( 7 54).

[54] Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean; distinct layers of dark matter) in six Days, then He established Himself on the Throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o'er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His Command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!

( ) ( 10 3).

[3] Verily your Lord is Allah, Who created the Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) in six Days, then He established Himself on the Throne (of authority), regulating and governing all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His leave (hath been obtained). This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will yet not receive admonition?

( ) ( 11 7).

[7] He it is Who created the Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) in six Days - and His Throne was over the Waters - that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, "Ye shall indeed be raised up after death," the Unbelievers would be sure to say, "This is nothing but obvious sorcery!"

( ) ( 25 59).

[59] He Who created Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) and all that (was) between, in six days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of authority): Allah, Most Gracious: ask thou, then, about Him of any acquainted (with such things).

: " " " ( )

( ) ( 32 4).

(It is Allah Who has created Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) and all that (was) between them, in six Days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of authority); ye have none, besides Him, to protect or intercede (for you): will ye not then receive admonition?) (S. 32, V. 4)

( ) ( 50 38)

(We created the Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) and all that (was) between them in Six Days, nor did any sense of weariness touch Us.) (S. 50, V. 38)

" " " " " " " " .

( ) ( 57 4)

(He it is Who created the Samawat (seven firmaments) and the Ardh (seven Ardhean) in six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of authority), He knows what enters within the Ardh (all meanings) and what comes forth out of it, what comes down from the Sama (all meanings) and what mounts up to it. And He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah sees well all that ye do.) (S. 57, V. 4)

- ( ) 29 .

(It is He Who hath created for you all things that were coupled on Ardh (interior part of universe, or coupled seven Ardhean); then He turned to the heaven and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge.) (S. 1, V. 29)

- ( ) 32 .

32] And We have made the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)!) (S 21, V. 32)

- ( ) 104.

(The Day that We roll up the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament, space) like a scroll rolled up for books (completed), even as We produced the first Creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfill it.) (S 21, V. 104)

- ( ) 12.

(So He completed them as seven Samawat (firmaments, skies, canopies) in two Days and He assigned to each Samaa its duty and command. And We adorned the lower Samaa with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.) (S 41, V. 12)

- ( ) 37 .

(When the Samaa (sky, firmament) is rent asunder, and it becomes red like ointment:) (S. 55, V. 37)

- ( ) 4 .

(He it is Who created the Samawat (firmaments, skies, canopies) and the Ardh (Dark matter holding galaxies) in six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of authority), ) (S. 57, V. 4)

- ( ) 16.

(And the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) will be rent asunder, for it will that Day be flimsy, ) (S. 69, V. 16)

- ( ) 8 .

(The Day that the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) will be like molten brass) (S. 70, V. 8)

- ( ) 18.

)Whereon the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) will be cleft asunder? His Promise needs must be accomplished. ) (S. 73, V. 18)

- ( ) 9 .

(When the heaven is cleft asunder; ) (S. 77, V. 9)

- ( ) 27 .

)What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: ) (S. 79, V. 27)

- ( ) 1 .

(When the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) is cleft asunder ) (S. 81, V. 1)

- ( ) 1 .

(When the Samaa (heavens, sky, firmament) is rent asunder, ) (S. 84, V. 1)

- ( ) 18 .

(And at the Samaa, how it is raised high?) (S. 88, V. 18)

- ( ) ] 3 [. .... ([1]).

(He Who created the seven Samawat (skies, Firmaments) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.) (S. 67, V. 3)

- ( ) ] 12 [. ([2]).

(And (have We not) built over you the seven Firmaments) (S. 79, V. 12)

- ( ) ] 17 [ . ([3]). .

(And We have made, above you, seven layers; and We are never unmindful of (Our) Creation) (S 23, V. 17).

- ( ) ] 15 [. ( [4]).

(See ye not how Allah has created the seven Samawat (skies, Firmaments) one above another,) (S. 71, V. 15).

Supernovae explosion is referred to by the Quranic verse:

(And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might as well as many benefits for mankind (Al-Hadid (Iron) 57:25). The verse has a number of implications: Iron accumulates in cores of high mass old stars. The iron core collapses to form a degenerate neutron star. Consequently, a shock wave moves through the infalling stellar material and completely disrupts the star. The Verse also directs attention to the fact that high energy is required to produce chemical elements higher than iron; endothermic reaction. The verse also emphasizes the extraction of iron from cores of massive old dieing stars. Both processes require a high energy provided by the supernova explosion. Finally, iron and other elements are sent to form our solar system. Iron A=56 and nearby elements have maximum binding energy per nucleon (Figure). Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon of all nuclei. The fusion of two nuclei with lower mass than iron generally releases energy, while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy. Reactions producing elements having A = 57 are endothermic. This is implied by the number of the Surah; 57. The atomic number of iron; 26; exceeds the number of the Verse; 25; by one. This difference one might direct attention to the process of inverse beta decay; which leads to the removal of the support that had been provided to the inert core:

p → n + e+ + νe . Inverse beta decay is one of the steps in nuclear fusion processes that produce energy inside stars (Omari).

Cosmic Microwave Background

Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe

The existence of dark energy, in whatever form, is needed to reconcile the measured geometry of space with the total amount of matter in the universe. Measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, most recently by the WMAP spacecraft, indicate that the universe is very close to flat. For the shape of the universe to be flat, the mass/energy density of the universe must be equal to a certain critical density. The total amount of matter in the universe (including baryons and dark matter), as measured by the CMB, accounts for only about 30% of the critical density. This implies the existence of an additional form of energy to account for the remaining 70%.[7] The most recent WMAP observations are consistent with a universe made up of 74% dark energy, 22% dark matter, and 4% ordinary matter.[2]

"Furthermore I swear by what ye see * And what ye see not." (S. 69 V 38-39).

(Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge. * And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness.) (S. 36, V. 36-37)

Large-Scale Structure

The theory of large scale structure, which governs the formation of structure in the universe (stars, quasars, galaxies and galaxy clusters), also suggests that the density of baryonic matter in the universe is only 30% of the critical density.

Late-time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

Accelerated cosmic expansion causes gravitational potential wells and hills to flatten as photons pass through them, producing cold spots and hot spots on the CMB aligned with vast supervoids and superclusters. This so-called late-time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) is a direct signal of dark energy in a flat universe,[9] and has recently been detected at high significance by Ho et al.[10] and Giannantonio et al.[11]

That Accelerated cosmic expansion causes gravitational potential wells and hills to flatten is indicated by the verses:

( * * * ) [ 9-12].

[10] He set on the (Ardh). Like Mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on the Ardh, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in precisely four Days (periods) for those who seek knowledge, and also in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance).

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out!" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

Supervoids are indicated by the verse:

( ) [ 30]. ( 2004 : ).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

Nature of dark energy

The exact nature of this dark energy is a matter of speculation. It is known to be very homogeneous, not very dense and is not known to interact through any of the fundamental forces other than gravity. Since it is not very dense roughly 10−29 grams per cubic centimeter it is hard to imagine experiments to detect it in the laboratory.

) ( 10 61)

(In whatever business thou mayest be, and whatever portion thou mayest be reciting from the Qur-an, and whatever deed ye (mankind) may be doing, We are witnesses thereof when ye are deeply engrossed therein. Nor is hidden from the Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on the Ardh or in heaven. nor is there anything less than that, or greater, but are recorded in a clear Record.) (S. 10, V. 61)

) ( 34 3)

(The Unbelievers say, "Never to us will come the Hour": say, "Nay! but most surely, by my Lord, it will come upon you; - by Him Who knows the unseen - from Whom is not hidden the least little atom in the Heavens or on Ardh: nor is there anything less than that, or greater, but is in the Record Perspicuous) (S. 34, V. 3).

Dark energy can only have such a profound impact on the universe, making up 74% of universal density, because it uniformly fills otherwise empty space. The two leading models are quintessence and the cosmological constant. Both models include the common characteristic that dark energy must have negative pressure.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

Independently from its actual nature, dark energy would need to have a strong negative pressure (i.e. effects, acting repulsively) in order to explain the observed acceleration in the expansion rate of the universe.

According to General Relativity, the pressure within a substance contributes to its gravitational attraction for other things just as its mass density does. This happens because the physical quantity that causes matter to generate gravitational effects is the Stress-energy tensor, which contains both the energy (or matter) density of a substance and its pressure and viscosity.

The Qur'an says about the Hill fire:

( ) ( 25 12)

(When it sees them from a place far off, they will hear its fury and its raging sigh.) (S 25, V. 12).

In the Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker metric, it can be shown that a strong constant negative pressure in all the universe causes an acceleration in universe expansion if the universe is already expanding, or a deceleration in universe contraction if the universe is already contracting. More exactly, the second derivative of the universe scale factor, , is positive if the equation of state of the universe is such that .

This accelerating expansion effect is sometimes labeled "gravitational repulsion", which is a colorful but possibly confusing expression. In fact a negative pressure does not influence the gravitational interaction between masses which remains attractive but rather alters the overall evolution of the universe at the cosmological scale, typically resulting in the accelerating expansion of the universe despite the attraction among the masses present in the universe.

The so called dark energy, or negative pressure is referred to by the verses:

( * ) [ 11-12 ].

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) " (Surah 41, Verses 11-12).

- ( * * ) ] 49-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

( * ) [ 27-28]

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.

Cosmological constant

For more details on this topic, see Equation of state (cosmology).

The simplest explanation for dark energy is that it is simply the "cost of having space": that is, a volume of space has some intrinsic, fundamental energy. This is the cosmological constant, sometimes called Lambda (hence Lambda-CDM model) after the Greek letter Λ, the symbol used to mathematically represent this quantity. Since energy and mass are related by E = mc2, Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts that it will have a gravitational effect. It is sometimes called a vacuum energy because it is the energy density of empty vacuum. In fact, most theories of particle physics predict vacuum fluctuations that would give the vacuum this sort of energy. This is related to the Casimir Effect, in which there is a small suction into regions where virtual particles are geometrically inhibited from forming (e.g. between plates with tiny separation). The cosmological constant is estimated by cosmologists to be on the order of 10−29g/cm, or about 10−120 in reduced Planck units. However, particle physics predicts a natural value of 1 in reduced Planck units, a large discrepancy which is still not explained.

The cosmological constant has negative pressure equal to its energy density and so causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. The reason why a cosmological constant has negative pressure can be seen from classical thermodynamics; Energy must be lost from inside a container to do work on the container. A change in volume dV requires work done equal to a change of energy −p dV, where p is the pressure. But the amount of energy in a box of vacuum energy actually increases when the volume increases (dV is positive), because the energy is equal to ρV, where ρ (rho) is the energy density of the cosmological constant. Therefore, p is negative and, in fact, p = −ρ.

A major outstanding problem is that most quantum field theories predict a huge cosmological constant from the energy of the quantum vacuum, more than 100 orders of magnitude too large.[12] This would need to be cancelled almost, but not exactly, by an equally large term of the opposite sign. Some supersymmetric theories require a cosmological constant that is exactly zero, which does not help. The present scientific consensus amounts to extrapolating the empirical evidence where it is relevant to predictions, and fine-tuning theories until a more elegant solution is found. Technically, this amounts to checking theories against macroscopic observations. Unfortunately, as the known error-margin in the constant predicts the fate of the universe more than its present state, many such "deeper" questions remain unknown.

Another problem arises with inclusion of the cosmological constant in the standard model: i.e., the appearance of solutions with regions of discontinuities (see classification of discontinuities for three examples) at low matter density.[13] Discontinuity also affects the past sign of the pressure assigned to the cosmological constant, changing from the current negative pressure to attractive, as one looks back towards the early Universe. A systematic, model-independent evaluation of the supernovae data supporting inclusion of the cosmological constant in the standard model indicates these data suffer systematic error. The supernovae data are not overwhelming evidence for an accelerating Universe expansion which may be simply gliding.[14] A numerical evaluation of WMAP and supernovae data for evidence that our local group exists in a local void with poor matter density compared to other locations, uncovered possible conflict in the analysis used to support the cosmological constant.[15] These findings should be considered shortcomings of the standard model, but only when a term for vacuum energy is included.

In spite of its problems, the cosmological constant is in many respects the most economical solution to the problem of cosmic acceleration. One number successfully explains a multitude of observations. Thus, the current standard model of cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model, includes the cosmological constant as an essential feature.

Quintessence

Main article: Quintessence (physics)

In quintessence models of dark energy, the observed acceleration of the scale factor is caused by the potential energy of a dynamical field, referred to as quintessence field. Quintessence differs from the cosmological constant in that it can vary in space and time. In order for it not to clump and form structure like matter, the field must be very light so that it has a large Compton wavelength.

No evidence of quintessence is yet available, but it has not been ruled out either. It generally predicts a slightly slower acceleration of the expansion of the universe than the cosmological constant. Some scientists think that the best evidence for quintessence would come from violations of Einstein's equivalence principle and variation of the fundamental constants in space or time. Scalar fields are predicted by the standard model and string theory, but an analogous problem to the cosmological constant problem (or the problem of constructing models of cosmic inflation) occurs: renormalization theory predicts that scalar fields should acquire large masses.

The cosmic coincidence problem asks why the cosmic acceleration began when it did. If cosmic acceleration began earlier in the universe, structures such as galaxies would never have had time to form and life, at least as we know it, would never have had a chance to exist. Proponents of the anthropic principle view this as support for their arguments. However, many models of quintessence have a so-called tracker behavior, which solves this problem. In these models, the quintessence field has a density which closely tracks (but is less than) the radiation density until matter-radiation equality, which triggers quintessence to start behaving as dark energy, eventually dominating the universe. This naturally sets the low energy scale of the dark energy.

In 2004, when scientists fit the evolution of dark energy with the cosmological data, they found that the equation of state had possibly crossed the cosmological constant boundary (w=-1) from above to below. A No-Go theorem has been proved that to give this scenario at least two degrees of freedom are required for dark energy models. This scenario is so-called Quintom scenario.

Some special cases of quintessence are phantom energy, in which the energy density of quintessence actually increases with time, and k-essence (short for kinetic quintessence) which has a non-standard form of kinetic energy. They can have unusual properties: phantom energy, for example, can cause a Big Rip.

The Big Rip: The matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, are progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future. The hypothesis relies crucially on the type of dark energy in the universe. The key value is the equation of state parameter w, the ratio between the dark energy pressure and its energy density. At w < −1, the universe will eventually be pulled apart. The Big Rip is indicated by the verse:

- ( ) 18.

"Whereon the Sama (firmament, sky) will be cleft asunder? His Promise needs must be accomplished" (S 73, V 18).

- ( ) 9.

"When the Sama (firmament, sky) is cleft asunder;" (S 77, V 9)

- ( ) 11.

( ): : ; : . " " : ; , : ; . : : " " [ : 104 ] : . ().

"When the Sama (firmament, sky) gets stripped and collapses onto itself)" (S 81, V 11)

- ( ) 1 .

"When the Sama (firmament, sky; .galaxies) is cleft asunder" (S 82, V 1)

- ( ) 1.

"When the Sama (firmament, sky; ..) is rent asunder" (S 84, V 1)

- ( ) 2 . .

"When the planets are scattered" (S 82, V 2)

Implications for the fate of the universe

Cosmologists estimate that the acceleration began roughly 5 billion years ago. Before that, it is thought that the expansion was decelerating, due to the attractive influence of dark matter and baryons. The density of dark matter in an expanding universe decreases more quickly than dark energy, and eventually the dark energy dominates. Specifically, when the volume of the universe doubles, the density of dark matter is halved but the density of dark energy is nearly unchanged (it is exactly constant in the case of a cosmological constant).

If the acceleration continues indefinitely, the ultimate result will be that galaxies outside the local supercluster will move beyond the cosmic horizon: they will no longer be visible, because their line-of-sight velocity becomes greater than the speed of light.[19] This is not a violation of special relativity, and the effect cannot be used to send a signal between them. (Actually there is no way to even define "relative speed" in a curved spacetime. Relative speed and velocity can only be meaningfully defined in flat spacetime or in sufficiently small (infinitesimal) regions of curved spacetime). Rather, it prevents any communication between them as the objects pass out of contact. The Earth, the Milky Way and the Virgo supercluster, however, would remain virtually undisturbed while the rest of the universe recedes. In this scenario, the local supercluster would ultimately suffer heat death, just as was thought for the flat, matter-dominated universe, before measurements of cosmic acceleration.

There are some very speculative ideas about the future of the universe. One suggests that phantom energy causes divergent expansion, which would imply that the effective force of dark energy continues growing until it dominates all other forces in the universe. Under this scenario, dark energy would ultimately tear apart all gravitationally bound structures, including galaxies and solar systems, and eventually overcome the electrical and nuclear forces to tear apart atoms themselves, ending the universe in a "Big Rip". On the other hand, dark energy might dissipate with time, or even become attractive. Such uncertainties leave open the possibility that gravity might yet rule the day and lead to a universe that contracts in on itself in a "Big Crunch". Some scenarios, such as the cyclic model suggest this could be the case. While these ideas are not supported by observations, they are not ruled out. Measurements of acceleration are crucial to determining the ultimate fate of the universe in big bang theory.

The Big Crunch is indicated by the verse:

( ) [ 67]. .

"No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: The Ardhean (lower part of universe; mostly dark matter holding galaxies) will be coupled, His handful on the Day of Judgment, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him! High is He above the Partners they attribute to Him!: (Al-Zumar 39:67). Also there are many Hadiths said by our Prophet (Omari 2004).

The cyclic model is probably indicated by the verse:

( ) ( 14 48)

(One day the Ardh [seven Ardhean; distinct layers of dark matter holding galaxies, Earth, . .] will be changed to a different Ardh, and so will be the Samawat (seven firmaments, Heavens, skies), and (men) will be marshalled forth, before Allah, the One, the Irresistible;) (S 14, V. 48).

History

The cosmological constant was first proposed by Einstein as a mechanism to obtain a stable solution of the gravitational field equation that would lead to a static universe, effectively using dark energy to balance gravity. Not only was the mechanism an inelegant example of fine-tuning, it was soon realized that Einstein's static universe would actually be unstable because local inhomogeneities would ultimately lead to either the runaway expansion or contraction of the universe. The equilibrium is unstable: if the universe expands slightly, then the expansion releases vacuum energy, which causes yet more expansion. Likewise, a universe which contracts slightly will continue contracting. These sorts of disturbances are inevitable, due to the uneven distribution of matter throughout the universe. More importantly, observations made by Edwin Hubble showed that the universe appears to be expanding and not static at all. Einstein famously referred to his failure to predict the idea of a dynamic universe, in contrast to a static universe, as his greatest blunder. Following this realization, the cosmological constant was largely ignored as a historical curiosity.

Alan Guth proposed in the 1970s that a negative pressure field, similar in concept to dark energy, could drive cosmic inflation in the very early universe. Inflation postulates that some repulsive force, qualitatively similar to dark energy, resulted in an enormous and exponential expansion of the universe slightly after the Big Bang. Such expansion is an essential feature of most current models of the Big Bang. However, inflation must have occurred at a much higher energy density than the dark energy we observe today and is thought to have completely ended when the universe was just a fraction of a second old. It is unclear what relation, if any, exists between dark energy and inflation. Even after inflationary models became accepted, the cosmological constant was thought to be irrelevant to the current universe.

The Big Bang is referred to by the verse:

( ) [ 30]. ( 2004 : ).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

The Arabic word (Ratq), implies that at early stages of Universe, matter used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution with high density, and both matter and radiation were coupled together. Later on, God clove them asunder (Fatq): Implying that matter had started clumping and holding together to help forming seven distinct firmaments (Samawat) and seven interior levels of Ardh (very likely to be seven distinct shells of dark matter). Also, later the universe became transparent, and matter is no more coupled to radiation (Fatq). Consequently Sama (Upper part of Universe) and Ardh (Interior part of Universe) are decoupled; each into seven distinct and probably concentric spherical shells. The seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh: Ground) mentioned by authentic hadiths (Prophet's sayings) are seven distinct levels. It is possible that galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed over Ardhean. As such, Ardhean represent a major part of the cosmic dark matter that supports forming gravitationally bounded galaxies and clusters ([i]).

The enormous expansion of the universe slightly after the Big Bang (inflation) is referred to by the verses:

( * ) [ 11-12 ]

Allh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods) and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge" (Surah 41, Verse 11-12).

At early stages, the Universe was hot and opaque as indicated by the verse: "and it had been smoke".

( ) : . ( ) .

He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days (periods): According to commentators, the day is either 24 hours, or a thousand years.

Expanding:

- ( * ) ] 48-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out!" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).

( 14 228) : ( ) .... : ( ) : ( . 5 244 5 181 ӡ 6 192 . 9 560) . ( 3 280 7 212 ȡ 14 529-530). ( 4 20 14 227).

And We indeed Have vast power and force; to build the Sama (sky, firmaments, space) via expansion and to keep on its expansion.

( ): : (seven concentric spherical shells of cold dark matter) ( 2004: ).

"And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it". This interprets as: ALLAH constructs Sama via expansion ([ii]). ALLAH create and elevate Sama with vast force and power, and We (ALLAH) are able to expand it as We desire ([iii]). We are able to expand, as We expand its construction ([iv]).

The so called negative pressure; or dark energy is referred to by the verse:

- ( * * ) ] 49-47 [.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

Dark energy and energy are an example of such pairs.

The term "dark energy", echoing Fritz Zwicky's "dark matter" from the 1930s, was coined by Michael Turner in 1998.[20] By that time, the missing mass problem of big bang nucleosynthesis and large scale structure was established, and some cosmologists had started to theorize that there was an additional component to our universe. The first direct evidence for dark energy came from supernova observations of accelerated expansion, in Riess et al.[5] and later confirmed in Perlmutter et al.[6] This resulted in the Lambda-CDM model, which as of 2006 is consistent with a series of increasingly rigorous cosmological observations, the latest being the 2005 Supernova Legacy Survey. First results from the SNLS reveal that the average behavior (i.e., equation of state) of dark energy behaves like Einstein's cosmological constant to a precision of 10%.[21] Recent results from the Hubble Space Telescope Higher-Z Team indicate that dark energy has been present for at least 9 billion years and during the period preceding cosmic acceleration.

To English

To Arabic-English

To Arabic

 

References

1.  ^ P. J. E. Peebles and Bharat Ratra (2003). "The cosmological constant and dark energy" (subscription required). Reviews of Modern Physics 75: 559606. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0207347. 

2.  ^ a b Hinshaw, Gary F. (April 30th, 2008). "WMAP Cosmological Parameters Model: lcdm+sz+lens Data: wmap5". NASA. http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/current/params/lcdm_sz_lens_wmap5.cfm. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 

3.  ^ Sean Carroll (2001). "The cosmological constant". Living Reviews in Relativity 4: 1. doi:10.1038/nphys815-<span (inactive 2008-06-26). http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr-2001-1/index.html. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 

4.  ^ L.Baum and P.H. Frampton (2007). "Turnaround in Cyclic Cosmology" (subscription required). Physical Review Letters 98: 071301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.071301. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0610213. 

5.  ^ a b Adam G. Riess et al. (Supernova Search Team) (1998). "Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant" (subscription required). Astronomical J. 116: 100938. doi:10.1086/300499. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201. 

6.  ^ a b S. Perlmutter et al. (The Supernova Cosmology Project) (1999). "Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae" (subscription required). Astrophysical J. 517: 56586. doi:10.1086/307221. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9812133. 

7.  ^ a b D. N. Spergel et al. (WMAP collaboration) (March 2006). Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three year results: implications for cosmology. http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/current/map_bibliography.cfm. 

8.  ^ Kowalski, Marek; Rubin, David (October 27th, 2008). "Improved Cosmological Constraints from New, Old and Combined Supernova Datasets". The Astrophysical Journal (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press) 686: 749778. doi:10.1086/589937. arXiv:0804.4142v1. 

They find a best fit value of the
dark energy density, ΩΛ of 0.713+0.027-0.029(stat)+0.036-0.039(sys), of the total matter density, ΩM, of 0.274+0.016-0.016(stat)+0.013-0.012(sys) with an equation of state parameter w of -0.969+0.059-0.063(stat)+0.063-0.066(sys).

9.  ^ "Looking for Lambda with the Rees-Sciama Effect", Crittenden R.G., & Turok N., 1996, Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 575

10.            ^ "Correlation of CMB with large-scale structure: I. ISW Tomography and Cosmological Implications", Ho et al., 2008, Phys Rev. D, in press

11.            ^ "Combined analysis of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and cosmological implications", Giannantonio et al., 2008, Phys. Rev. D, in press

12.            ^ a b c Hogan, Jenny (2007). "Unseen Universe: Welcome to the dark side". Nature 448 (7151): 240245. doi:10.1038/448240a. 

13.            ^ A.M. Öztas and M.L. Smith (2006). "Elliptical Solutions to the Standard Cosmology Model with Realistic Values of Matter Density". International Journal of Theoretical Physics 45: 925936. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9082-7. 

14.            ^ D.J. Schwarz and B. Weinhorst (2007). "(An)isotropy of the Hubble diagram: comparing hemispheres". Astronomy & Astrophysics 474: 717729. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077998. 

15.            ^ Stephon Alexander, Tirthabir Biswas, Alessio Notari, and Deepak Vaid (2008). "Local Void vs Dark Energy: Confrontation with WMAP and Type Ia Supernovae". ArΧiv ePrint. arXiv:astro-ph/0712.0370v2. 

16.            ^ Wiltshire, David L. (2007). "Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology". Phys. Rev. Lett. 99: 251101. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.251101. 

17.            ^ [1] arXiv:0708.2943v1 Dark energy as a mirage HIP-2007-64/TH

18.            ^ Clifton, Timothy; Pedro Ferreira (April 2009). "Does Dark Energy Really Exist?". Scientific American 300 (4): 4855. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=does-dark-energy-exist. Retrieved April 30, 2009. 

19.            ^ http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-end-of-cosmology

20.            ^ The first appearance of the term "dark energy" is in the article with another cosmologist and Turner's student at the time, Dragan Huterer, "Prospects for Probing the Dark Energy via Supernova Distance Measurements", which was posted to the ArXiv.org e-print archive in August 1998 and published in Physical Review D in 1999 (Huterer and Turner, Phys. Rev. D 60, 081301 (1999)), although the manner in which the term is treated there suggests it was already in general use. Cosmologist Saul Perlmutter has credited Turner with coining the term in an article they wrote together with Martin White of the University of Illinois for Physical Review Letters, where it is introduced in quotation marks as if it were a neologism.

21.            ^ Pierre Astier et al. (Supernova Legacy Survey) (2006). "The Supernova legacy survey: Measurement of omega(m), omega(lambda) and W from the first year data set" (subscription required). Astronomy and Astrophysics 447: 3148. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20054185. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0510447. 

Bibliography

      HubbleSite press release: New Clues About the Nature of Dark Energy: Einstein May Have Been Right After All.

      1998 paper announcing the dark energy discovery: Riess et al.

      1999 paper confirming dark energy discovery Perlmutter et al..

      The group that first detected cosmic acceleration: High-Z supernova search team and the group that confirmed it Supernova Cosmology Project.

      Sean Carroll's technical reviews: Why is the universe accelerating?, The Cosmological Constant, and Dark Energy and the Preposterous Universe.

      Jim Peebles, Testing General Relativity on the Scales of Cosmology.

      "The World's Most Successful Nearby Supernova Search Engine", The Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope.

      Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposed satellite experiment.

      A reanalysis ([2], [3]) of an experiment [R.H. Koch, D. van Harlingen, J. Clarke, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 74] to find the broad-band spectrum of Josephson junction noise current claims to connect it to the spectral frequency upper limit predicted by matching estimates of the dark energy density to the measured vacuum energy density. This claim is not yet accepted. For disputes, see [4], [5], [6].

      Christopher J. Conselice, "The Universe's Invisible Hand," Scientific American. February, 2007.

External links

      Robert R Caldwell (May 2004). "Dark energy". Physics World. http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/5/7.  *Bad Link - 3/23/09 @ 1:00a EST*

      Dennis Overbye (November 2006). "9 Billion-Year-Old 'Dark Energy' Reported". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/17/science/space/17dark.html?em&ex=1163998800&en=f02de71136ca5dd5&ei=5087%0A. 

      "Mysterious force's long presence" BBC News online (2006) More evidence for dark energy being the cosmological constant

      "Astronomy Picture of the Day" one of the images of the Cosmic Microwave Background which confirmed the presence of dark energy and dark matter

      SuperNova Legacy Survey home page The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Supernova Program aims primarily at measuring the equation of state of Dark Energy. It is designed to precisely measure several hundred high-redshift supernovae.

      "Report of the Dark Energy Task Force"

      "Dark energy" BBC Science & Nature (2006)

      "Dark energy in the accelerating universe" Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) Satellite Observatory home page.

      Emille Ishida. "When did cosmic acceleration start". Astroparticle physics. http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.0546v5. 

      "Calculation of the Cosmological Constant by Unifying Matter and Dark Energy" A geometric model of dark energy as Poincar sphere - calculated: ΩD = 0.734, observed: ΩD = 0.65...0.85 (see also blog).

      "HubbleSite.org -- Dark Energy Website" Multimedia presentation explores the science of dark energy and Hubble's role in its discovery.

      "Surveying the dark side"

      "Dark energy and 3-manifold topology" Acta Physica Polonica 38 (2007), p. 3633-3639

      The Dark Energy Survey

      The Information Equation of State

      The Joint Dark Energy Mission

      "Dark Energy Found Stifling Growth in Universe". Newswise. December 2008. http://newswise.com/articles/view/547483. , is a secondary source (with extra animations) for,

      Harvard: Dark Energy Found Stifling Growth in Universe, primary source

 



[1] . 3 725 . 9 3

[2] . 19 112 . 10 384

[3] . 12 75 ѡ . 3 325 . 4 216-217 ϡ 6 127

[4] 3 553 10 221



[i] ) See the following references:-

- Omari, 2002; (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004).

- al-Sabouni, Mohammed Ali (1981). Mukhtaser Tafseer ibn Katheer (A Summary of Ibn Katheers Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Quran al-Kareem, 3 Parts; Vol. 2, 506.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 2: 570.

- Weinberg, Steven. The First Three Minutes, 6th printing 1984, USA, pp 48-49.

- al-Siyouti, Abdulhruhaman (911 Hijri) ad-Dur al-Menthour fi al-Tafseer al-Mathour (The Spreading Pearl in the Memorable Interpretation) (2nd. Ed. 1414 Hijri-1993), Part 1: 106-107.

 

[ii] ) See the following references:-

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, Abi Mohammed (546 Hijri) al-Muharur al-Wajeez fi Tafseer al-Kettab al-Aziz (1413 Hijri-1993) (The Editing Summary in the Interpretation of the Glorious Quran) Vol., 5:181.

- Abi Al-Abbas, Shehab ed-Din (1994) al-Dar al-Masoun fi Oloum al-Kettab al-Kaknoun. Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah. Six Parts; Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) An-Nahr al-Madd, vol. 5: Part 5: 244.

- Ibn Attiyeh al-Andalusi, (546 Hijri), (1413 Hijri-1993), vol. 5:181.

- Shehab ed-Din (1994), Part 6: 192.

- Abu Hayan, (654-754 Hijri) al-Bahr al-Muheet, Part 9: 560

 

[iii] ) See the following references:-

- as-Sammurgandi, Abi al-Layeth Nasser bin Mohammed (1993) Bahr al-Oulum (The Sea of Knowledge) Beirut, 3 Parts, Part 3: 280.

- al-Jouzi, Abi al-Faruj Jamal ed-Din (1987) Zad al-Maseer fi Elm at-Tafseer (The Provision of Walk in the Science of Interpretation) Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, 8 Parts, Part 7: 212.

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Khateeb, 1970, vol. 4: 529-39.

- al-Zamakhshari, 538 Hijri, vol. 4: 20.

- al-Razi, 1208, vol. 4: 227

[iv] ) See the following references:-

- al-Kasimi, Mohammed Jamal (1332 Hijri- 1914) Mahasen at-Taweel (The Advantages of Paraphrase), Dar al-Fiker (1978), vol. 9, Part 2: 202-03.

- al-Maourdi, Tasneef Abi al-Hasan al-Basri (364-450 Hijri) Revised and commented on by as-Siyyed bin Abdulraheem. Al-Nukat wal Oyoun: Tafseer al-Maourdi (Secrets - details - and the Eyes: al-Maourdis Interpretation). Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyeh. 6 volumes. Vol.5: 373-74.

- al-Nasseri, 1985, Part 6: 93.