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OBSEVABLE UNIVERSE LINKED TO QURAN

Hussain Omari

Phys. Dept./ Mutah Univ./ Jordan

rashed@mutah.edu.jo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hubble Ultra Deep Field image of a region of the observable universe (equivalent sky area size shown in bottom left corner), near the constellation Fornax. Each spot is a galaxy, consisting of billions of stars. The light from the smallest, most redshifted galaxies originated roughly 13 billion years ago.

In Big Bang cosmology, the observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that we can in principle observe from Earth in the present day, because light (or other signals) from those objects has had time to reach us since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. Assuming the Universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction—that is, the observable universe is a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer, regardless of the shape of the Universe as a whole. The actual shape of the Universe may or may not be spherical. However, the portion of it that we (humans, from the perspective of planet Earth) are able to observe is determined by whether or not the light and other signals originating from distant objects has had time to arrive at our point of observation (planet Earth). Therefore, the observable universe appears from our perspective to be spherical. Every location in the Universe has its own observable universe which may or may not overlap with the one centered around the Earth.

The word observable used in this sense does not depend on whether modern technology actually permits detection of radiation from an object in this region (or indeed on whether there is any radiation to detect). It simply indicates that it is possible in principle for light or other signals from the object to reach an observer on Earth. In practice, we can see objects only as far as the surface of last scattering, before which the Universe was opaque to photons.

The hot state is indicated by:

(ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ) [فصّلت آية 11 ].

(قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ) : على الفور.  (السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ) تكوّنت على الفور.

Allâh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'." (Surah 41, Verse 11).

At early stages, the Universe was hot and opaque as indicated by the verse: "and it had been smoke".

However, it may be possible in the future to observe the still older neutrino background, or even more distant events via gravitational waves (which also move at the speed of light). Sometimes a distinction is made between the visible universe, which includes only signals emitted since the last scattering time, and the observable universe, which includes signals since the beginning of the cosmological expansion (the Big Bang in traditional cosmology, the end of the inflationary epoch in modern cosmology).

According to the Big Bang model, the Universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today.  The dense and hot initial state is indicated by the verses:

 وتؤكّد الآيات والأحاديث أنَّ السّموات والأرض كانتا رتقاً عند بداية الخلق (أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ) [الأنبياء 30]. وأمّا الآن فهنَّ بسط وفتق (عمري 2004 : الأرضون السّبع).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

The Arabic word (Ratq), implies that at early stages of Universe, matter used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution with high density, and both matter and radiation were coupled together.  Later on, God clove them asunder (Fatq): Implying that matter had started clumping and holding together to help forming seven distinct firmaments (Samawat) and seven interior levels of Ardh (very likely to be seven distinct shell-like fences of dark matter).  Also, later the universe became transparent, and matter is no more coupled to radiation (Fatq).  Consequently Sama (Upper part of Universe) and Ardh (Interior part of Universe) are decoupled; each into seven distinct and probably concentric spherical shells.  The seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh: Ground) mentioned by authentic hadiths (Prophet's sayings) are seven distinct levels.  It is possible that galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed over Ardhean.  As such, Ardhean represent a major part of the cosmic dark matter that supports forming gravitationally bounded galaxies and clusters (Omari, 2002; Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004).

The Sculptor Wall

The Sculptor Wall:The map below is a slice of the universe which shows the Sculptor Wall. This map is a plot of 7400 bright galaxies (from the HyperLeda database) in the vicinity of the Sculptor Wall. Our galaxy is at the bottom and the top of the map is 800 million light years away. The red line shows the Sculptor Wall which is sometimes called the Southern Wall. The wall is faint beyond 500 million light years because the data is incomplete beyond that distance. Notice that the nearest part of the wall (the Phoenix supercluster) lies next to a large rectangular void. This is called the Sculptor Void, and it is one of the largest voids in the nearby universe (http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/superc/sclphe.html).

A Slice of the Universe

A Slice of the Universe: By collecting distances to thousands of galaxies in a narrow strip of the sky, it is possible to produce a slice of the universe, like this one shown below from The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey which looks out into the universe to 3.5 billion light years, although not much data was collected for galaxies beyond 3 billion light years. These types of plots show how clustered the galaxies in the universe really are, even on the largest scales. About 52000 galaxies are plotted.

Inflation is indicated by the verses:

- (وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْيدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ * وَالأرْضَ فَرَشْنَاهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَاهِدُونَ * وَمِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ) ] 49-47 الذّاريات[.

Observable_universe_atlasoftheuniverse

Observable_universe_atlasoftheuniverse.gif

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Sama and Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

The age of the Universe is about 13.7 billion years, but due to the expansion of space we are now observing objects that are now considerably farther away than a static 13.7 billion light-years distance. The edge of the observable universe is now located about 46.5 billion light-years away, giving an observable diameter of 93 billion light-years.[1]

The vast majority of the energy density is believed to be composed of dark matter and dark energy ([1]).  This is likely indicated by the verse: And of everything We have created pairs (like: {Dark energy, energy}, {Dark matter, matter}, {particle, antiparticle}).

The Universe versus the observable universe

While special relativity constrains objects in the Universe from moving faster than the speed of light with respect to each other, there is no such constraint when space itself is expanding. This means that the size of the observable universe could be smaller than the entire universe; there are some parts of the Universe which might never be close enough for the light to overcome the speed of the expansion of space, in order to be observed on Earth. Some parts of the Universe which are currently observable may later be unobservable due to ongoing expansion.[2][3]

(فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِمَا تُبْصِرُونَ * وَمَا لَا تُبْصِرُونَ) (الحاقة س 69، الآيتان 38-39)

(So I do call to witness what ye see * And what ye see not,) (S. 69, V. 38-39)

Some parts of the Universe may simply be too far away for the light from there to have reached Earth. Due to the expansion of space, at a later time they could be observed.

(فَارْتَقِبْ يَوْمَ تَأْتِي السَّمَاءُ بِدُخَانٍ مُبِينٍ *يَغْشَى النَّاسَ هَذَا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ) [الدّخان 10-11].

(Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible * Enveloping the people: this will be a Penalty Grievous.) (S. 44, V. 10-11)

Both popular and professional research articles in cosmology often use the term "Universe" to mean "observable universe". This can be justified on the grounds that we can never know anything by direct experimentation about any part of the Universe that is causally disconnected from us, although many credible theories require a total Universe much larger than the observable universe. No evidence exists to suggest that the boundary of the observable universe corresponds precisely to the physical boundary of the universe (if such a boundary exists);

Qur-an declares that a boundary does exist for an observable universe that is relatively very small compared to the total universe:

- (وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا مَحْفُوظًا وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ) سورة الأنبياء آية رقم 32 .

(And We have made the Sama (Firmaments) as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)!) (S. 21, . 32)

- (أَفَلَمْ يَنْظُرُوا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَاهَا وَزَيَّنَّاهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِنْ فُرُوجٍ) سورة ق آية رقم 6.

(Do they not look at the Sama (firmament, sky) above them? How We have constructed it and adorned it, and there are no flaws in it?) (S. 50, V. 6)

- (أَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمْ السَّمَاءُ بَنَاهَا * ) سورة النازعات آية رقم 27 .

(What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the heaven (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection.) (S. 79, V. 27-28)

This is exceedingly unlikely in that it would imply that Earth is exactly at the center of the Universe, in violation of the Copernican principle.  I do not agree with this statement.  The Earth is very close to the first firmament (boundary of observable universe) (Omari 2002).

It is likely that the galaxies within our visible universe represent only a minuscule fraction of the galaxies in the Universe. According to the theory of cosmic inflation and its founder, Alan Guth, the lower bound for the diameter of the entire Universe could be at least in the range of 1023 to 1026 times as large as the observable universe.

This is very likely the case according to Qur-an:

أجزاء الكون الغير مرئية

وهي من الداخل (الأصغر) إلى الخارج (الأكبر) على النحو التالي:

السماوات السبع (Firmaments):

- (فَقَضَاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَى فِي كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ أَمْرَهَا) سورة فصلت آية رقم 12.

(So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.) (S. 41, V. 12)

(الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَا تَرَى فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَانِ مِنْ تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعْ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِنْ فُطُورٍ * ثُمَّ ارْجِعْ الْبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ) [ الملك 3-4]. تشير الآية إلى انعدام إمكانية الرؤية البصرية (Optical) لأيّ تفاوت.

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?  [4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.

- (وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعًا شِدَادًا) ] 12 النبأ [. يريد سبع سماوات قويّة الخلق مُحكمة البناء، ولهذا وصفها بالشِّدَّة ([2]).

(And (have We not) built over you the seven Firmaments,) (S. 78, V. 12)

- (وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعَ طَرَائِقَ وَمَا كُنَّا عَنْ الْخَلْقِ غَافِلِينَ) ] 17 المؤمنون[ .

(And We have made, above you, seven firmaments; and We are never unmindful of (Our) Creation) (S. 23, V. 17)

والطّرائق هي الطّبقات بعضُها فوق بعض أو وراء بعض ([3]).   ولمّا كان البناءُ خالياً من الفطور والشُّقوق فإنّهُ لا بُدَّ بناءٌ قويٌّ متماسك.

- (هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ) (الحديد آية 4 .

( He it is Who created the firmaments and the Ardh (dark matter; not earth) in six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of authority).) (S. 57, V. 4)

ومن هذا القبيل جميع الآيات التي تتحدّث عن خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ.  فالمراد منها هو السموات السّبع والأرضين السّبع.

The Day here after, The Samawat (Firmaments) will be cracked:

(فَإِذَا انشَقَّتْ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ وَرْدَةً كَالدِّهَانِ) سورة الرحمن آية رقم 37 .

(When the sky is rent asunder, and it becomes red like ointment) (S. 55, V. 37)

 (وَانشَقَّتْ السَّمَاءُ فَهِيَ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَاهِيَةٌ) سورة الحاقة آية رقم 16.

(And the sky will be rent asunder, for it will that Day be flimsy,) (S. 69, V. 16)

 (إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انفَطَرَتْ) سورة الانفطار آية رقم 1 .

(When the Sky is cleft asunder;) (S. 82, V. 1)

 (إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انشَقَّتْ) سورة الانشقاق آية رقم 1 .

(When the Sky is rent asunder,) (S. 84, V. 1)

الجنة (Paradise, Heaven )

يتنافس المجاهدون في مائة درجة

(في الجنة مائة درجة ، ما بين كل درجتين كما بين السماء والأرض ، والفردوس أعلاها درجة ، ومنها تفجر أنهار الجنة الأربعة ، ومن فوقها يكون العرش . فإذا سألتم الله فسلوه الفردوس ) (الراوي: عبادة بن الصامت المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4244، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(In Heaven there are hundred levels, between each two neighboring is as between Sama (lower firmament) and Ardh (Earth).  Paradise is the highest level …).

 (الجنة مائة درجة ، بين كل درجتين كما بين السماء والأرض ، ومن فوقها يكون العرش ، وإن الفردوس من أعلاها درجة ومنها تفجر أنهار الجنة الأربعة ، فسلوه الفردوس ) (الراوي: عبادة بن الصامت المحدث: ابن خزيمة - المصدر: التوحيد - الصفحة أو الرقم: 247/1، خلاصة حكم المحدث: [أشار في المقدمة أنه صح وثبت بالإسناد الثابت الصحيح]

(الجنة مائة درجة كل درجة منها ما بين السماء والأرض وإن أعلاها الفردوس وإن أوسطها الفردوس وإن العرش على الفردوس منها تفجر أنهار الجنة فإذا ما سألتم الله فسلوه الفردوس ) (الراوي: معاذ بن جبل المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح ابن ماجه - الصفحة أو الرقم: 3512، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(إن أدنى أهل الجنة منزلة لمن ينظر إلى جنانه وأزواجه ونعمه وخدمه وسرره مسيرة ألف سنة . وأكرم على الله من ينظر إلى وجهه غدوة وعشية ثم قرأ : { وجوه يومئذ ناضرة { 22 } إلى ربها ناظرة { { 23 ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عمر المحدث: الشوكاني - المصدر: الفتح الرباني - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2/766، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح)

الكرسي:

(اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ) (البقرة 255)

(Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) Before or After or Behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).) (S. 2, V. 255)

(عن ابن عباس قال الكرسي موضع القدمين ، والعرش لا يقدر أحد قدره ) (الراوي: سعيد بن جبير المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 76، خلاصة حكم المحدث: رواته ثقات)

(يجمع الله الأولين والآخرين لميقات يوم معلوم أربعين سنة، شاخصة أبصارهم إلى السماء ينظرون إلى فصل القضاء، فينزل الله من العرش إلى الكرسي في ظلل من الغمام. ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العرش - الصفحة أو الرقم: 76، خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن)

(إذا جلس الرب على الكرسي ، سمع له أطيط كأطيط الرحل الجدد ) (الراوي: عمر بن الخطاب المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العرش - الصفحة أو الرقم: 99، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(يجمع الله الأولين والآخرين لميقات يوم معلوم أربعين سنة شاخصة أبصارهم إلي السماء ينتظرون فصل القضاء، وينزل الله في ظل الغمام من العرش إلى الكرسي . ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 91، خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده حسن)

(عن عبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنه قال : ما بين السماء القصوى والكرسي خمسمائة عام ، وبين الكرسي والماء كذلك ، والعرش فوق الماء ، والله فوق العرش ، ولا يخفى عليه شيء من أعمالكم ) (الراوي: - المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العرش - الصفحة أو الرقم: 105، خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح)

 (ما بين سماء الدنيا والتي تليها مسيرة خمسمائة عام وما بين كال سماءين خمسمائة عام وما بين السماء السابعة والكرسي مسيرة خمسمائة عام وما بين الكرسي والماء خمسمائة عام والعرش على الماء والله جل ذكره على العرش يعلم ما أنتم عليه ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: الهيثمي - المصدر: مجمع الزوائد - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1/91، خلاصة حكم المحدث: رجاله رجال الصحيح)

Prophet Mohammed - peace and blessing of ALLAH be upon him - said: (Between the closest firmament and the next one five hundred-years,  And between each two adjacent firmaments five hundred years.  And between the seventh firmament and the Throne five hundred years.  And between the Throne and water five hundred-years, And the throne (of authority on the water, And God, Greatest mentioned, is on (top) of the throne (of authority) knows what you are doing).

 (عن ابن عباس في قوله تعالى { وسع كرسيه السموات والأرض } الكرسي موضع القدمين ، والعرش لا يقدر قدره إلا الله تعالى ) (الراوي: - المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: شرح الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 279، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح موقوف)

(عن أبي موسى أن الكرسي موضع القدمين ) (الراوي: - المحدث: ابن حجر العسقلاني - المصدر: فتح الباري لابن حجر - الصفحة أو الرقم: 8/47، خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح)

(عن أبي موسى قال : الكرسي موضع القدمين وله أطيط كأطيط الرحل ) (الراوي: أبو موسى الأشعري المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: مختصر العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 85، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح موقوف)

(الكرسي موضع القدمين ، والعرش لا يقدر قدره إلا الله تعالى ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: التعليق على الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 36، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح موقوف)

(عن ابن عباس قال : الكرسي موضع القدمين ، والعرش لا يقدر أحد قدره ) (الراوي: سعيد بن جبير المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: مختصر العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 45، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح موقوف)

وفي الحديث الذي يرويه أبو ذر الغفاري (رضي الله عنه) كما أورده المحدثون:

(ما السموات السبع في الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة ، و فضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل تلك الفلاة على تلك الحلقة ) (الألباني - المصدر: السلسلة الصحيحة - الصفحة أو الرقم: 109، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح [لطرقه])

(ما السماوات السبع في الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة ، وفضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل تلك الفلاة على تلك الحلقة ) (الألباني - المصدر: التعليق على الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 36، خلاصة حكم المحدث: هذا القدر فقط صح مرفوعاً)

 (ما الكرسي في العرش إلا كحلقة من حديد ألقيت بين ظهري فلاة من الأرض ) (الألباني - المصدر: شرح الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 279، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح)

(قلت : يا رسول الله أيما أنزل عليك أعظم ، قال : آية الكرسي ، ثم قال : يا أبا ذر ما السموات السبع مع الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة ، وفضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل الفلاة على الحلقة ) (ابن تيمية - المصدر: مجموع الفتاوى - الصفحة أو الرقم: 6/556، خلاصة حكم المحدث: مشهور له طرق)

(يا أبا ذر ما السموات السبع مع الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة وفضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل الفلاة على الحلقة ) (ابن حجر العسقلاني - المصدر: فتح الباري لابن حجر - الصفحة أو الرقم: 13/422، خلاصة حكم المحدث: له شاهد بسند صحيح)

العرش:

(اللَّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ) (الرعد ، س 13 ، آية 2)

(Allah is He Who raised the Samawat (Firmaments, sky) without any pillars that ye can see; then He established Himself on the Throne (of Authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the Signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.) (S. 13, V. 2)

(كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول عند الكرب : ( لا إله إلا الله العليم الحليم ، لا إله إلا الله رب العرش العظيم ، لا إله إلا الله رب السماوات ورب الأرض رب العرش الكريم ) . ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 7426، خلاصة حكم المحدث: [صحيح]

(أن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقول عند الكرب " لا إله إلا الله العظيم الحليم . لا إله إلا الله رب العرش العظيم . لا إله إلا الله رب السماوات ورب الأرض ورب العرش الكريم " . وفي رواية : أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يدعو بهن ويقولهن عند الكرب . فذكر بمثل حديث معاذ بن هشام عن أبيه ، عن قتادة . غير أنه قال " رب السماوات والأرض " . وفي رواية : أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان ، إذا حزبه أمر ، قال . فذكر بمثل حديث معاذ عن أبيه. وزاد معهن " لا إله إلا رب العرش الكريم " . ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: مسلم - المصدر: صحيح مسلم - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2730، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(إن الله إذا أحب عبدا نادى جبريل عليه السلام : أنا أحب عبدي فلانا ، فينوه جبريل في حملة العرش فيحبه أهل العرش ، فيسمعه أهل السماء تحت العرش فيحبه أهل السماء السابعة ، ثم ينزل سماء سماء حتى ينزل إلى سماء الدنيا ، ثم يهبط إلى الأرض فيحبه أهل الأرض ، والبغض مثل ذلك ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: أبو نعيم - المصدر: حلية الأولياء - الصفحة أو الرقم: 3/296، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح متفق عليه [أي:بين العلماء] من حديث أبي صالح

(والعرش فوق الماء والله فوق العرش وهو يعلم ما أنتم عليه ) (الراوي: - المحدث: ابن تيمية - المصدر: مجموع الفتاوى - الصفحة أو الرقم: 3/139، خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن

(ما السموات السبع في الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة ، و فضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل تلك الفلاة على تلك الحلقة ) (الراوي: أبو ذر الغفاري المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: السلسلة الصحيحة - الصفحة أو الرقم: 109، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح [لطرقه]

(يجمع الله الأولين والآخرين لميقات يوم معلوم أربعين سنة ، شاخصة أبصارهم إلى السماء ينظرون إلى فصل القضاء ، فينزل الله من العرش إلى الكرسي في ظلل من الغمام . ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: الذهبي - المصدر: العرش - الصفحة أو الرقم: 76، خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن

(إن الله أذن لي أن أحدث عن ديك قد مرقت رجلاه الأرض , وعنقه مثنية تحت العرش,وهو يقول : سبحانك ما أعظمك ! فيرد عليه : لا يعلم ذلك من حلف بي كاذبا . ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1714، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(أذن لي أن أحدث عن ملك من حملة العرش ، رجلاه في الأرض السفلى ، و على قرنه العرش ، و بين شحمة أذنيه و عاتقه خفقان الطير سبعمائة عام ، يقول ذلك الملك سبحانك حيث كنت ) (الراوي: أنس بن مالك المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 853، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(أذن لي أن أحدث عن ملك من ملائكة الله تعالى حملة العرش ، ما بين شحمة أذنه إلى عاتقه مسيرة سبعمائة سنة ) (الراوي: جابر بن عبدالله المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 854، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(إن أرواح الشهداء في جوف طير خضر ، لها قناديل معلقة تحت العرش ، تسرح من الجنة حيث شاءت ، ثم تأوي إلى تلك القناديل ، فاطلع إليهم ربهم اطلاعة فقال : هل تشتهون شيئا ؟ قالوا : أي شيء نشتهي ونحن نسرح من الجنة حيث شئنا ؟ فيفعل ذلك بهم ثلاث مرات ، فلما رأوا أنهم لم يتركوا من أن يسألوا ، قالوا : يا رب نريد أن ترد أرواحنا في أجسادنا حتى نرجع إلى الدنيا فنقتل في سبيلك مرة أخرى ! فلما رأى أن ليس لهم حاجة تركوا ) (الراوي: كعب بن مالك المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1558، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(إن المتحابين بالله في ظل العرش ) (الراوي: معاذ بن جبل المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1937، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(ألا أعلمك كلمات إذا قلتهن غفر الله لك ، وإن كنت مغفورا لك ؟ قل : لا إله إلا الله العلي العظيم، لا إله إلا الله الحكيم الكريم ، لا إله إلا الله سبحان الله رب السموات السبع ورب العرش العظيم، الحمد لله رب العالمين ) (الراوي: علي بن أبي طالب المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2621، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(كان يدعو عند الكرب : لا إله إلا الله العظيم الحليم ، لا إله إلا الله رب العرش العظيم ، لا إله إلا الله رب السموات السبع و رب الأرض ، و رب العرش الكريم ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4940، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(لما أصيب إخوانك بأحد ، جعل الله أرواحهم في جوف طير خضر ترد أنهار الجنة ، تأكل من ثمارها ، وتأوي إلى قناديل من ذهب ، معلقة في ظل العرش ، فلما وجدوا طيب مأكلهم ومشربهم ومقيلهم ، قالوا : من يبلغ إخواننا عنا أنا أحياء في الجنة نرزق لئلا يزهدوا في الجهاد ولا يتكلوا عند الحرب ؟ فقال الله تعالى : أنا أبلغهم عنكم ) (الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 5205، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(لما قضى الله الخلق ، كتب في كتابه ، فهو عنده فوق العرش : إن رحمتي غلبت غضبي ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 5214، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(ما قال عبد لا إله إلا الله قط مخلصا ، إلا فتحت له أبواب السماء ، حتى تفضي إلى العرش ، ما اجتنبت الكبائر ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 5648، خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن

(اقبلوا البشرى يا بني تميم . قالوا : [ قد ] بشرتنا فأعطنا . قال : اقبلوا البشرى يا أهل اليمن . قالوا : قد بشرتنا فاقض لنا على هذا الأمر كيف كان ؟ فقال : كان الله على العرش ، وكان قبل كل شيء ، وكتب في اللوح كل شيء يكون ) (الراوي: عمران بن حصين المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: مختصر العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 40، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

 (لما قضى الله الخلق كتب في كتابه فهو عنده فوق العرش : إن رحمتي سبقت غضبي وفي لفظ: إن الله كتب كتابا قبل أن يخلق الخلق : إن رحمتي سبقت غضبي ، فهو عنده فوق العرش وفي لفظ آخر : لما خلق الله الخلق كتب في كتاب كتبه على نفسه فهو مرفوع فوق العرش : إن رحمتي تغلب غضبي ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: مختصر العلو - الصفحة أو الرقم: 21، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(ما الكرسي في العرش إلا كحلقة من حديد ألقيت بين ظهري فلاة من الأرض ) (الراوي: أبو ذر الغفاري المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: شرح الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 279، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(أذن لي أن أحدث عن ملك من ملائكة الله ، من حملة العرش : إن ما بين شحمة أذنه إلى عاتقه ، مسيرة سبعمائة عام ) (الراوي: جابر بن عبدالله المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح أبي داود - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4727، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(ما السماوات السبع في الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة بأرض فلاة ، وفضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل تلك الفلاة على تلك الحلقة ) (الراوي: - المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: التعليق على الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 36، خلاصة حكم المحدث: هذا القدر فقط صح مرفوعاً

(أذن لي أن أحدث عن ملك من ملائكة الله عز وجل من حملة العرش ، إن ما بين شحمة أذنه إلى عاتقه مسيرة سبعمائة عام ) (الراوي: - المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: شرح الطحاوية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 279، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(أذن لي أن أحدث عن ملك من ملائكة الله تعالى من حملة العرش . إن ما بين شحمة أذنه إلى عاتقه مسيرة سبعمائة عام . ) (الراوي: جابر بن عبدالله المحدث: الوادعي - المصدر: الصحيح المسند - الصفحة أو الرقم: 265، خلاصة حكم المحدث: ارتقى الحديث إلى الصحة

(قولي : اللهم رب السموات السبع ، ورب العرش العظيم ، ربنا ورب كل شيء ، منزل التوراة والإنجيل والقرآن ، فالق الحب والنوى ، أعوذ بك من شر كل شيء أنت آخذ بناصيته ، أنت الأول ؛ فليس قبلك شيء ، وأنت الآخر ؛ فليس بعدك شيء ، وأنت الظاهر ، فليس فوقك شيء ، وأنت الباطن ؛ فليس دونك شيء ، اقض عني الدين ، وأغنني من الفقر ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4424، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح)

لقد أوضحت الأحاديث الشريفة أنّ الجزء المرئي من الكون هو جزء يسير جدّاً من مجموع الكون.

It is also possible that the Universe is smaller than the observable universe. In this case, what we take to be very distant galaxies may actually be duplicate images of nearby galaxies, formed by light that has circumnavigated the Universe.

ولعلّ هذا بعضٌ من مدلول قوله تعالى (وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الرَّجْعِ) (الطارق 11) ، على اعتبار أنّ السّماء هنا هي البناء.

This is likely to be among things indicated by the following verse:

(By the samaa (Firmament) which returns), (Surah 86, verse 11)

وهذه الطّبقات السّبعُ مسوّاة، ذكره تعالى في مواضع متعدِّدة :

- (هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ) ( البقرة آية رقم 29 ).

(It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on Ardh; then He turned to the Sama and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge. ) (S. 2, V. 29)

- (الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَا تَرَى فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَانِ مِنْ تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعْ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِنْ فُطُورٍ) ]3 الملك[.

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?

Actually, duplicate images are referred to by Rashed (Rashed Omari, H. Y. 1999, Finite Closed Universe Contained in a Spherical Shell SAMA', Al-Manarah Journal, Al al-BAYT University, Mafraq, Jordan, Vol. 4, No. 2, 85-107.).

It is difficult to test this hypothesis experimentally because different images of a galaxy would show different eras in its history, and consequently might appear quite different. A 2004 paper[4] claims to establish a lower bound of 24 giga parsecs (78 billion light-years) on the diameter of the whole Universe, making it, at most, only slightly smaller than the observable universe. This value is based on matching-circle analysis of the WMAP data.

(فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِمَا تُبْصِرُونَ * وَمَا لَا تُبْصِرُونَ) (الحاقة س 69، الآيتان 38-39)

(So I do call to witness what ye see * And what ye see not,) (S. 69, V. 38-39)

Size

The comoving distance from Earth to the edge of the visible universe (also called the particle horizon) is about 14 billion parsecs (46.5 billion light-years) in any direction.[5] This defines a lower limit on the comoving radius of the observable universe, although as noted in the introduction, it is expected that the visible universe is somewhat smaller than the observable universe since we see only light from the cosmic microwave background radiation that was emitted after the time of recombination, giving us the spherical surface of last scattering (gravitational waves could theoretically allow us to observe events that occurred earlier than the time of recombination, from regions of space outside this sphere). The visible universe is thus a sphere with a diameter of about 28 billion parsecs (about 93 billion light-years).

Assuming that space is roughly flat, this size corresponds to a comoving volume of about 3×1080 cubic meters. This is equivalent to a volume of about 41 decillion cubic light-years short scale (4.1 X 1034 cubic light years).

The figures quoted above are distances now (in cosmological time), not distances at the time the light was emitted. For example, the cosmic microwave background radiation that we see right now was emitted at the time of recombination, 379,000[6] years after the Big Bang, which occurred around 13.7 billion (13.7×109) years ago. This radiation was emitted by matter that has, in the intervening time, mostly condensed into galaxies, and those galaxies are now calculated to be about 46 billion light-years from us. To estimate the distance to that matter at the time the light was emitted, a mathematical model of the expansion must be chosen and the scale factor, a(t), calculated for the selected time since the Big Bang, t. For the observationally-favoured Lambda-CDM model, using data from the WMAP spacecraft, such a calculation yields a scale factor change of approximately 1292. This means the Universe has expanded to 1292 times the size it was when the CMBR photons were released.

Qur-an might be giving a value for this factor.  If my understanding is correct, this value is 1000; as indicated by the following two verses:

Concerning early stages of the universe, Qur-an says:

)يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ) (السجدة س 32 ، آية 5)

(He rules (all) affairs from the heavens to the Ardh: in the end will (all affairs) go up to Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be (as) a thousand years of your reckoning.) (S. 32, V. 5).

At Final stages of the universe (Day of Judgment), Qur-an says:

 (مِنَ اللَّهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ * تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ) (المعارج س 70 ، آية 3-4). تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ":  { فِي يَوْم كَانَ مِقْدَاره خَمْسِينَ أَلْف سَنَة } يَعْنِي يَوْم الْقِيَامَة (الطبري).  وَالْعَرَج : آفَة تَعْرِض لِرِجْلٍ وَاحِدَة (القرطبي).

Also these two verses have some other correct meanings (interpretations):  The first is probably indicating the length of the day of creation for Samawat (Firmaments) and Ardh (Dark matter, and the coupled radiation and matter in early stage of universe).  The latter is also indicating the length of the Day of Judgment.

الجنة (Heaven )

 (في الجنة مائة درجة ، ما بين كل درجتين كما بين السماء والأرض ، والفردوس أعلاها درجة، ومنها تفجر أنهار الجنة الأربعة ، ومن فوقها يكون العرش . فإذا سألتم الله فسلوه الفردوس ) (الراوي: عبادة بن الصامت المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4244، خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

(In Heaven there are hundred levels, between each two neighboring is as between Sama (lower firmament) and Ardh (Earth).  Paradise is the highest level …).

(100 levels) * (500 yr/level) = 50000 yr

وفي الحديث الشريف:

(بعثت أنا والساعة كهذه من هذه، أو كهاتين. وقرن بين السبابة والوسطى . ) (الراوي: سهل بن سعد الساعدي المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 5301، خلاصة حكم المحدث: [صحيح])

 (بعثت أنا والساعة كهاتين. يشير بإصبعيه فيمدهما . ) (الراوي: سهل بن سعد الساعدي المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 6503، خلاصة حكم المحدث: [صحيح])

(رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال بإصبعيه هكذا ، بالوسطى والتي تلي الإبهام : ( بعثت أنا والساعة كهاتين ) . ) (الراوي: سهل بن سعد الساعدي المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4936، خلاصة حكم المحدث: [صحيح)

Hence, the most distant matter that is observable at present, 46 billion light-years away, was only 36 million light-years away from the matter that would eventually become Earth when the microwaves we are currently receiving were emitted.

Misconceptions

Many secondary sources have reported a wide variety of incorrect figures for the size of the visible universe. Some of these figures are listed below, with brief descriptions of possible reasons for misconceptions about them.

13.7 billion light-years. The age of the Universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years. While it is commonly understood that nothing travels faster than light, it is a common misconception that the radius of the observable universe must therefore amount to only 13.7 billion light-years. This reasoning makes sense only if the Universe is the flat spacetime of special relativity; in the real Universe, spacetime is highly curved on cosmological scales, which means that 3-space (which is roughly flat) is expanding, as evidenced by Hubble's law. Distances obtained as the speed of light multiplied by a cosmological time interval have no direct physical significance.[7]

15.8 billion light-years. This is obtained in the same way as the 13.7 billion light year figure, but starting from an incorrect age of the Universe which was reported in the popular press in mid-2006.[8][9][10] For an analysis of this claim and the paper that prompted it, see.[11]

27.4 billion light-years. This is a diameter obtained from the (incorrect) radius of 13.7 billion light-years.

78 billion light-years. This is a lower bound for the diameter of the whole Universe, based on the estimated current distance between points that we can see on opposite sides of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). If the whole Universe is smaller than this sphere, then light has had time to circumnavigate it since the big bang, producing multiple images of distant points in the CMBR, which would show up as patterns of repeating circles.[12]

The circumnavigation (of course among various other things) is probably indicated by the verses:

(By the samaa (Firmament) which returns), (Surah 86, verse 11)

ولعلّ هذا بعضٌ من مدلول قوله تعالى (وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الرَّجْعِ) (الطارق 11) ، على اعتبار أنّ السّماء هنا هي البناء.

وهذه الطّبقات السّبعُ مسوّاة، ذكره تعالى في مواضع متعدِّدة :

- (هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي الأرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ) ]29 سورة البقرة[.

(It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on Ardh; then He turned to the Sama and made them into seven firmaments. And of all things He hath perfect knowledge. ) (S. 2, V. 29)

- (الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَا تَرَى فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَانِ مِنْ تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعْ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِنْ فُطُورٍ) ]3 الملك[.

[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?

Cornish et al. looked for such an effect at scales of up to 24 gigaparsecs (78 billion light years) and failed to find it, and suggested that if they could extend their search to all possible orientations, they would then "be able to exclude the possibility that we live in a Universe smaller than 24 Gpc in diameter". The authors also estimated that with "lower noise and higher resolution CMB maps (from WMAP's extended mission and from Planck), we will be able to search for smaller circles and extend the limit to ~28 Gpc."[4] This estimate of the maximum diameter of the CMBR sphere that will be visible in planned experiments corresponds to a radius of 14 giga parsecs, the same number given in the previous section.

156 billion light-years. This figure was obtained by doubling 78 billion light-years on the assumption that it is a radius. Since 78 billion light-years is already a diameter, the doubled figure is incorrect. This figure was very widely reported.[13][14][15]

180 billion light-years. This estimate accompanied the age estimate of 15.8 billion years in some sources;[16] it was obtained by adding 15% to the figure of 156 billion light years.

Large-scale structure                                      

Sky surveys and mappings of the various wavelength bands of electromagnetic radiation (in particular 21-cm emission) have yielded much information on the content and character of the universe's structure. The organization of structure appears to follow as a hierarchical model with organization up to the scale of superclusters and filaments. Larger than this, there seems to be no continued structure, a phenomenon which has been referred to as the End of Greatness.

Walls, filaments and voids

300px-2dfdtfe

 

DTFE reconstruction of the inner parts of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

The organization of structure arguably begins at the stellar level, though most cosmologists rarely address astrophysics on that scale. Stars are organized into galaxies, which in turn form clusters and superclusters that are separated by immense voids, creating a vast foam-like structure sometimes called the "cosmic web". Prior to 1989, it was commonly assumed that virialized galaxy clusters were the largest structures in existence, and that they were distributed more or less uniformly throughout the universe in every direction. However, based on redshift survey data, in 1989 Margaret Geller and John Huchra discovered the "Great Wall", a sheet of galaxies more than 500 million light-years long and 200 million wide, but only 15 million light-years thick. The existence of this structure escaped notice for so long because it requires locating the position of galaxies in three dimensions, which involves combining location information about the galaxies with distance information from redshifts. In April 2003, another large-scale structure was discovered, the Sloan Great Wall. In August 2007, a possible supervoid was detected in the constellation Eridanus.[17] It coincides with the 'WMAP Cold Spot', a cold region in the microwave sky that is highly improbable under the currently favored cosmological model. This supervoid could cause the cold spot, but to do so it would have to be improbably big, possibly a billion light-years across.

In more recent studies the universe appears as a collection of giant bubble-like voids separated by sheets and filaments of galaxies, with the superclusters appearing as occasional relatively dense nodes. This network is clearly visible in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. In the figure a 3-D reconstruction of the inner parts of the survey is shown, revealing an impressive view on the cosmic structures in the nearby universe. Several superclusters stand out, such as the Sloan Great Wall, the largest structure in the universe known to date.

The existence of voids in Dark matter, and hence in clusters of galaxies is indicated by the verse:

 (أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ) [الأنبياء 30]. وأمّا الآن فهنَّ بسط وفتق (عمري 2004 : الأرضون السّبع).

"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper part of universe) and the Ardh (Dark matter, lower - interior - part of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

End of Greatness

The End of Greatness is an observational scale discovered at roughly 100 Mpc (roughly 300 million lightyears) where the lumpiness seen in the large-scale structure of the universe is homogenized and isotropized as per the Cosmological Principle. The superclusters and filaments seen in smaller surveys are randomized to the extent that the smooth distribution of the universe is visually apparent. It was not until the redshift surveys of the 1990s were completed that this scale could accurately be observed.[18]

Observations

399px-2MASS_LSS_chart-NEW_Nasa

"Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog (XSC)—more than 1.5 million galaxies, and the Point Source Catalog (PSC)--nearly 0.5 billion Milky Way stars. The galaxies are color coded by 'redshift' obtained from the UGC, CfA, Tully NBGC, LCRS, 2dF, 6dFGS, and SDSS surveys (and from various observations compiled by the NASA Extragalactic Database), or photo-metrically deduced from the K band (2.2 um). Blue are the nearest sources (z < 0.01); green are at moderate distances (0.01 < z < 0.04) and red are the most distant sources that 2MASS resolves (0.04 < z < 0.1). The map is projected with an equal area Aitoff in the Galactic system (Milky Way at center)." [19]

Another indicator of large-scale structure is the 'Lyman alpha forest'. This is a collection of absorption lines which appear in the spectral lines of light from quasars, which are interpreted as indicating the existence of huge thin sheets of intergalactic (mostly hydrogen) gas. These sheets appear to be associated with the formation of new galaxies.

Some caution is required in describing structures on a cosmic scale because things are not always as they appear to be. Bending of light by gravitation (gravitational lensing) can result in images which appear to originate in a different direction from their real source. This is caused by foreground objects (such as galaxies) curving the space around themselves (as predicted by general relativity), deflecting light rays that pass nearby. Rather usefully, strong gravitational lensing can sometimes magnify distant galaxies, making them easier to detect. Weak lensing (gravitational shear) by the intervening universe in general also subtly changes the observed large-scale structure. In 2004, measurements of this subtle shear show considerable promise as a test of cosmological models.

The large-scale structure of the Universe also looks different if one only uses redshift to measure distances to galaxies. For example, galaxies behind a galaxy cluster will be attracted to it, and so fall towards it, and so be slightly blueshifted (compared to how they would be if there were no cluster); on the near side, things are slightly redshifted. Thus, the environment of the cluster looks a bit squashed if using redshifts to measure distance. An opposite effect works on the galaxies already within the cluster: the galaxies have some random motion around the cluster centre, and when these random motions are converted to redshifts, the cluster will appear elongated. This creates what is known as a finger of God: the illusion of a long chain of galaxies pointed at the Earth.

Cosmography of our neighborhood

At the centre of the Hydra supercluster there is a gravitational anomaly, known as the Great Attractor, which affects the motion of galaxies over a region hundreds of millions of light-years across. These galaxies are all redshifted, in accordance with Hubble's law, indicating that they are receding from us and from each other, but the variations in their redshift are sufficient to reveal the existence of a concentration of mass equivalent to tens of thousands of galaxies.

The Great Attractor, discovered in 1986, lies at a distance of between 150 million and 250 million light-years (250 million is the most recent estimate), in the direction of the Hydra and Centaurus constellations. In its vicinity there is a preponderance of large old galaxies, many of which are colliding with their neighbours, and/or radiating large amounts of radio waves.

In 1987 Astronomer R. Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii’s Institute of Astronomy identified what he called the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex, a structure one billion light years long and 150 million light years across in which, he claimed, the Local Supercluster was embedded.[20][21]

Matter content

The observable universe contains about 3 to 7 × 1022 stars (30 to 70 sextillion stars),[22] organized in more than 80 billion galaxies, which themselves form clusters and superclusters.[23]

Two approximate calculations give the number of atoms in the observable universe to be a minimum of 1080.

Observations of the cosmic microwave background from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe suggest that the spatial curvature of the Universe is very close to zero, which in current cosmological models implies that the value of the density parameter must be very close to a certain critical value. This works out to 9.9×10−27 kg/m3,[24] which would be equal to about 5.9 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. Analysis of the WMAP results suggests that only about 4.6% of the critical density is in the form of normal atoms, while 23% is thought to be made of cold dark matter and 72% is thought to be dark energy,[24] so this leaves 0.27 hydrogen atoms/m3. Multiplying this by the volume of the visible universe, you get about 8×1079 hydrogen atoms.

Dark matter (one of the meanings of the Arabic word Ardh) is referred to many times by Qur-an, and Hadiths.  Also dark energy is referred to by Qur-an:

- (وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْيدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ * وَالأرْضَ فَرَشْنَاهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَاهِدُونَ * وَمِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ) ] 49-47 الذّاريات[.

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 49).

Examples of such pairs are:  Dark matter (Sama – Firmament -, and Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies) and Matter.  Another pair is Dark energy and energy.

متوسط رقم الآيتين (47.5) يساوي القيمة الحاليّة لمتوسط نسب الطاقة المظلمة والمادّة المظلمة:

The average value for the numbers of these two verses, 47.5, is equal to the present value of the average percentages of dark matter and dark energy:

(23% + 72%)/2= 47.5%                 

[9] "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the early Universe; large scale structure of dark matter) in two Days (periods)? and do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." [10] He set on the (Ardh). Like Mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on the Ardh, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in precisely four Days (periods) for those who seek knowledge, and also in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance). " (Surah 41, Verses 9-10).

 (فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِمَا تُبْصِرُونَ * وَمَا لَا تُبْصِرُونَ) (الحاقة س 69، الآيتان 38-39)

"Furthermore I swear by what ye see * And what ye see not." (S. 69 V 38-39)

- (سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا مِمَّا تُنْبِتُ الْأَرْضُ وَمِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ * وَآيَةٌ لَهُمُ اللَّيْلُ نَسْلَخُ مِنْهُ النَّهَارَ فَإِذَا هُمْ مُظْلِمُونَ) [يس 36-37]

(Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge. * And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness.) (S. 36, V. 36-37)

- (والَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا) [الزّخرف 12]

[12] That has created pairs in all things, and has made for you ships and cattle on which ye ride,) (S. 43, V. 12)

- (وَمِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ) [الذّاريات 49].

[49] And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction. ) (S. 51, V. 49)

 (وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْيدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ)

(أَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمْ السَّمَاءُ بَنَاهَا * رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا) [النّازعات 27-28]

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa (Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. ) (S. 79, V. 27)

(وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ) (الرحمن 7)

(And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice),) (S. 55, V. 7)

 (اللَّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ) (الرعد 2)

(Allah is He Who raised the Samawat – Firmaments - without any pillars that ye can see; then He established Himself on the Throne (of Authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the Signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.) (S. 13, V. 2)

يُخْبِر اللَّه تَعَالَى عَنْ كَمَالِ قُدْرَته وَعَظِيم سُلْطَانه أَنَّهُ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ وَأَمْره رَفَعَ السَّمَوَات بِغَيْرِ عَمَد بَلْ بِإِذْنِهِ وَأَمْره وَتَسْخِيره رَفَعَهَا عَنْ الْأَرْض بُعْدًا لَا تُنَال (بن كثير).

(خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا وَأَلْقَى فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ) (لقمان 10)

(He created the Samawat – Firmaments - without any pillars that ye can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.) (S. 31, V. 10)

يُبَيِّن سُبْحَانه بِهَذَا قُدْرَته الْعَظِيمَة عَلَى خَلْق السَّمَاوَات وَالْأَرْض وَمَا فِيهِمَا وَمَا بَيْنهمَا فَقَالَ تَعَالَى " خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَات بِغَيْرِ عَمَد " قَالَ الْحَسَن وَقَتَادَة لَيْسَ لَهَا عَمَد مَرْئِيَّة وَلَا غَيْر مَرْئِيَّة . وَقَالَ اِبْن عَبَّاس وَعِكْرِمَة وَمُجَاهِد لَهَا عَمَد لَا تَرَوْنَهَا (بن كثير).

يوسّع الله سبحانه وتعالى بناء السّماء، فيتعاظم الفراغ في الكون، وتزداد الطاقة المظلمة.  فينتج عنه فرش ومهاد الأرضين (المادّة المظلمة التي تحضن جاذبيّا مجرّات الكون).  وبالتالي تتباعد المسافات بين المجرّات.

ALLAH (GOD) have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, He indeed Have vast power; to create its vastness and continue to expand it, and on high hath He raised its canopy.  This gives rise to the so called negative pressure (Dark energy); since Sama is a solid construction (roof) with no cracks, and completely covers and surrounds the universe.  This is clearly indicated by the verses:

A typical star has a mass of about 2×1030 kg, which is about 1×1057 atoms of hydrogen per star. A typical galaxy has about 400 billion stars so that means each galaxy has 1×1057 × 4×1011 = 4×1068 hydrogen atoms. There are possibly 80 billion galaxies in the Universe, so that means that there are about 4×1068 × 8×1010 = 3×1079 hydrogen atoms in the observable universe. But this is definitely a lower limit calculation, and it ignores many possible atom sources such as intergalactic gas.[25]

Mass

The mass of the matter in the observable universe can be estimated based on density and size.[26]

Estimation based on the measured stellar density

One way to calculate the mass of the visible matter which makes up the observable universe is to assume a mean stellar mass and to multiply that by an estimate of the number of stars in the observable universe. The estimate of the number of stars in the Universe is derived from the volume of the observable universe  .  and a stellar density calculated from observations by the Hubble Space Telescope

One star per cube, 1000 ly to a side (x,y,z), yielding an estimate of the number of stars in the observable universe of 9 × 1021 stars (9 billion trillion stars).

Taking the mass of Sol (2 × 1030 kg) as the mean stellar mass (on the basis that the large population of dwarf stars balances out the population of stars whose mass is greater than Sol) and rounding the estimate of the number of stars up to 1022 yields a total mass for all the stars in the observable universe of 3 × 1052 kg.[27] However, as noted in the "matter content" section, the WMAP results in combination with the Lambda-CDM model predict that less than 5% of the total mass of the observable universe is made up of visible matter such as stars, the rest being made up of dark matter and dark energy.

Sir Fred Hoyle calculated the mass of an observable steady-state universe using the formula:[28]

This calculation yields approximately 0.92×1053 kg; however, this represents all energy/matter and is based on the Hubble volume, which is the volume of a sphere with radius equal to the Hubble length or about 13.7 billion light years. The critical density calculation above was based on the comoving distance 46.6 billion light years radius. Thus, the Hoyle equation mass/energy result must be adjusted for increased volume. The comoving distance (radius) gives a volume about 39 times greater (46.7 cubed divided by 13.7 cubed). However, as volume increases, ordinary matter and dark matter would not increase, only dark energy increases with volume. Thus, assuming ordinary matter and dark matter at 27.9% of the total mass/energy and other 72.1% for dark energy, the amount of total mass/energy for the steady-state calculation would be: mass of ordinary matter and dark matter (27.9% times 0.92×1053 kg) plus the mass of dark energy ((72.1% times 0.92×1053 kg) times increased volume (39)). This equals: 2.61×1054 kg . As noted above in the "Estimating based on critical density", ordinary matter is 4.8% of all energy/matter. If the Hoyle result is multiplied by this percent, the result for ordinary matter is 1.25×1053 kg.

In summary, the three independent calculations produced reasonably close results: 1.46×1053 kg, 1.7×1053 kg, and 1.25×1053 kg. The average is 1.47×1053 kg. The key assumptions using the Extrapolation from Star Mass method were number of stars (1022) and percent of ordinary matter in stars (5.9%). The key assumptions using Critical Density were comoving distance of universe (46.6 billion light years) and percent of ordinary matter in all matter (4.8%). The Hoyle steady-state method assumed the comoving distance and a percent of dark energy (72.1%). Both Critical Density and the Hoyle steady-state equation also used the Hubble constant (67.15 km/s/Mpc).

Most distant objects

The most distant astronomical object observed as of 2009 is a gamma ray burst, most likely caused by a star which collapsed when the universe was approximately 600 million years old.[29]

Cosmological horizon

The cosmological horizon, (also known as the particle horizon) is the maximum distance from which particles could have traveled to the observer in the age of the universe. It represents the boundary between the observable and the unobservable regions of the universe.[30] The existence, properties, and significance of a cosmological horizon depend on the particular cosmological model being discussed.

In terms of comoving distance, the particle horizon is equal to the conformal time η that has passed since the Big Bang, times the speed of light c. The quantity η is given by ([4]),

where a(t) is the scale factor of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric, and we have taken the Big Bang to be at t = 0. In other words, the particle horizon recedes constantly as time passes, and the observed fraction of the universe always increases.[30][31]

By convention, a subscript 0 indicates "today" so that the conformal time today . Note that the conformal time is not the age of the universe. Rather, the conformal time is the amount of time it would take a photon to travel from where we are located to the furthest observable distance provided the universe ceased expanding ([5]).

(سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ) (فصلت س 41، آية 53)

(Soon will We show them Our Signs in the horizons, and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?) (S. 41, V. 53)

The particle horizon differs from the event horizon in that the particle horizon represents the largest comoving distance from which light could have reached the observer by a specific time, while the event horizon is the largest comoving distance from which light emitted now can ever reach the observer in the future ([6]).[32]

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[2] القرطبي، الجامع لأحكام القرآن. ج 19، ص112 ؛ أبو حيّان، البحر المحيط. ج 10، ص 384

[3] القرطبي، الجامع لأحكام القرآن. ج 12، ص 75 ؛ ابن كثير، تفسير القرآن العظيم. م 3 ، ص 325 ؛ الأندلسي الغرناطي، النهر الماد من البحر الى المحيط. م 4 ص 216-217؛ العمادي، أبي السعود، تفسير أبي السعود، ج 6،  ص 127

[4] ) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_horizon#Conformal_time_and_the_particle_horizon

[5] ) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_horizon#Conformal_time_and_the_particle_horizon