Is Presented at: IPSI-2006 Conference, France, Carcassonne. April 27-30/2006.
Editing and Partial Translation: AbdulHafeth Khrisat; Departmet of English.
The article explores the Qur’anic Verse "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind". The Verse directs attention to various facts, such as: Iron accumulates in cores of high mass old stars. The iron core collapses to form a degenerate neutron star. Consequently, a shock wave moves through the in falling stellar material and completely disrupts the star. The Verse also points to the production of chemical elements higher than iron, and to the extraction of iron from cores of old dying stars. Finally, iron and other elements are sent to form our solar system. The number of the Surah (57) exceeds by one the atomic mass number of iron 56 corresponding to maximum binding energy per nucleon; among all elements produced by nuclear fusion reactions in cores of massive stars. This is an indication to the starting point for endothermic reactions. The atomic number of iron (26) exceeds the number of the Verse (25) by one. The difference “one” directs attention to the process of inverse beta decay. Moreover, the Verse directs our attention to the deep gravitational potential energy of the Iron Earth’s core, and its great heat thermal energy as well.
I would like to mention that this article has been introduced in many lectures: The first in the year 2003 at Mu'tah university with great number of attendees from professors and students in various fields of specialty. The second was in a conference at France (IPSI Conference: France - Carcassoan, 2006). The chairman of the conference comment was: "We should learn from the Moslems. They have a different approach from our breasts who already have in their mind what to say."
May Allah SWT purify our attentions, and direct our efforts to serve his religion: (Soon will We show them Our Signs in the Horizons (ÇáÂÝÇÞ), and in their own souls, until It becomes manifest to them That this is the Truth.) [S.41, A. 53].
Before starting, it is a good idea to have a look at the meanings of the Arabic words: SAMA (ÓãÇÁ), and AROAD (ÃÑÖ).
Anzala in Arabic (Ibn al-Manzur, 1993, XIV: 111-113; al-Taj, 1994, XV: 728-732): the noun nozoul (“residency”) means dwelling, lodging and living on the spot for certain periods. Originally, it means to descend, drop, plunge into or fall down. The derivatives, tanazala, istenzalahu, anzalahu and nazalahu have one meaning “sent”. In al-Taj, inzal gives the meaning of plenty or abundance; the word nuzul “home” is indicated in the Qur'anic verse: "Verily We have prepared Hell for the unbelievers for (their) nuzula (entertainment)" (Surat Al-Kahf No. 18, verse 102).
In this verse, nuzul, “home”, is ascertained in being there eternally. Figuratively speaking, manzelah reveals the meaning of rank and position whereas nuzul indicates what has been arranged and prepared from food and drinks for the reception of the guests: “This is their home nuzul on Doomsday.” Nuzul in this verse also denotes giving and blessing from Allâh. al-Akhafush says that nuzul means that people who are taking residency at others’ land. Another derivative is when someone anzala “sent by an external effect” another. Other meanings include: a) to put in order and make an arrangement b) to leave something c) to take residence at a place to seek aid or offer d) to have nuzul land, “fertile”. Moreover, nuzul has other connotations: a place that has fast flowing of water; nuzul valley, “narrow”; nuzul “rain”; and nizal “fighting with the enemy in war” or “fighting ferociously”. Also nuzul means home and entertainment, as God’s saying: "Verily We have prepared Hell for the unbelievers for (their) nuzula (entertainment)" (Surat Al-Kahf No. 18, verse 102). These meanings are indicated by the verses: "Such will be their nuzul (entertainment) on the Day of Requital" (Surat Al-Waqi’a No. 56, verse 56) and the verse "For those who fear their Lord, are gardens, with rivers flowing beneath; therein are they to dwell (for ever), nuzula (an entertainment) from Allâh" (Surat Al-i-Imran No. 3, verse 198).
Send (Verb) has a number of meanings:
1) To cause to go from one place to another: At the end of some large stars’ lives God sends iron from the core of such a star, as it undergoes a supernova explosion.
2) To cause to be carried: The supernova explosion sends iron (causes it to be carried) out of the core at the end of some large stars’ lives.
3) To cause to come, occur, to be: The supernova explosion provides the heat energy required to send elements having atomic mass A > 56.
4) To compel or force to go; drive, impel, or throw: The iron core collapses to form a degenerate neutron star. Consequently, a shock wave moves through the in falling stellar material and completely disrupts the star. The supernova explosion sends iron; forces it to go; out of the star. Iron, together with the stellar constituents, are sent (driven, impelled, or thrown) out of the star.
5) To cause to live in a certain place, engage in a certain employment, or the like, for a period of time: For a high mass star, say M = 25 MS, Silicon takes 24 hours to ignite and produce iron in the core. Iron is sent to (remains in) the core for 24 hours. With the degenerate neutron star being produced, iron is sent (expelled) out of the star.
6) To refer to some authority, to send a message or messenger, and to send good news: Allâh anzala Qur’an to Prophet Mohammad; who is sent (a messenger send by Allâh) to mankind.
7) To cause (something) to go (down, up): With the supernova explosion, iron is sent (ejected) in all directions.
8) To transmit: radio signals, current, electromagnetic wave by means of pulsation: The supernova explosion produces a degenerate neutron star, which is a radio pulsar. It is a rapidly rotating star that sends electromagnetic waves as pulsation. High percentage of Earth’s core is iron, which is a good conductor that sends (transmits) current.
9) And to send a ship: To lurch forward into the trough (ditch, trench, channel, depression, low) of a wave. A shock wave is what causes the star to explode; as star is send into the trench of the shock wave.
Send (Noun) has a number of denotations:
1) The driving impulse or force of a wave or waves on a ship. With the supernova explosion, there is a send (driving impulse or force from the shock wave) on the exploded star.
2) A sudden lurch (tilt, roll) forward of a ship into the trough (ditch, trench, channel, depression, low) of a wave. Similarly, the send iron and collapsing stellar matter go forward into the trough of the shock wave.
3) Send down: To expel from a university. With the supernova explosion, iron is send down (expelled) from the star.
The word Madd has a number of meanings: attraction; as moon-ocean force of attraction increases, Madd (tide) occurs. al-Lahyani said the verse: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it" (Surah No. 50, Verse 7; Surah No. 15, verse 19) means leveled and made it flat. Earth will be Madd at the Day of Judgment: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd" (Surat AL-Inshiqaq No. 84, verse 3).
Also madd of the ardh (field, a piece of land) denotes the increase of its components by addition of fertilizers and soil in order to produce in abundance. In another context, for example, a particular valley madd into another river means that it adds and increases its water current. In the same context, a river madd another river (flows and merges into it). Generally speaking, as al-Lahyani remarked, everything madd another denotes addition and increase. Madd also indicates everything that supplies others as a source for it. God’s verse says: (Say: "If the ocean were medad (ink) wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, Sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord, even if we added another ocean like it, for its medad (aid, ink).") (Al-Kahf No. 18, verse 109). Al_Farra, an Islamic scholar, interprets Qur'anic verses: "And if all the trees on Ardh (earth) were pens and the Ocean (were ink), with seven Oceans behind it to Madd (add to its supply), yet would not the Words of Allâh be exhausted (in the writing): for Allâh is exalted in power, full of Wisdom." (Surat Luqman No. 31, verse 27). "And the Ocean (were ink), with seven Oceans behind it to Madd". Al_Farra also said that Medad (a derivative from madd) is like ink. Allâh madd Euphrates (ÇáÝÑÇÊ) with water, and Euphrates madd our water currents and rivers. In the lexicon, the group is madd with supporters and others means assisting them in their mission. It is mentioned that a group madd the army (supply them with more food, water, arms and ammunition).
According to Shammur, if something is madd, it implies that it is full to the brim but if a river madd, its water level gets higher; if somebody madd the bottle of ink (adds to its content). According to Abu Zayed: People use to say Allâh madd in your life (hope you live long). Another usage of the word madd is to say that the day madd (the sun rises and the time is almost at noon: it is not early morning). To madd something means to add to its substance.
The most relevant meanings of madd are:
Accretion: 1- Growing together of separate things. 2- An increase in size by natural growth or gradual external addition. 3- A whole that results from such growths or additions. 4- A thing added; addition. 5- Growth in size. 6- The increase in area of a piece of land, beach, etc., by the washing up of soil (Barnhart, 1977, I: 15). 7- The process by which compact stars capture ambient matter is called accretion (Shapiro, 1983).
Inflation: 1- The act of swelling (as with air, gas, pride, or satisfaction). 2- A swollen state; too great expansion. 3- An increase of the currency of a country by issuing much paper money. 4- A sharp and sudden rise in prices resulting from a too great expansion in paper money or bank credit (Barnhart, 1977, I: 1083). Universes with exponential expansion are nowadays called inflationary (Ross, 1994).
Thus the Arabic word Madd can mean: Accretion, and (or) Inflation. It means to give rope in, or extends (the rope) to; plunge deeper in to; help with, assist with; give; somebody increase in; bestow freely on; grant resources in abundance. Aid, add to (supply), like ink for a pen; stretch out (a rope); God Madd, prolong; the shadow: Make long-extended. And God Madd (spread out, inflated, formed from small gravitating objects) the earth. These meanings for the Arabic word (Madd), are taken from the Qur'anic Verses (Omari, Earths Madd, Arabic translation):
"And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth), and set thereon fixing mountains" (Surat Ar-Ra’d No. 13, verse 3). Also: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it; set thereon mountains firm" (Surat Al-Hijr No. 15, verse 19). And the verse: "And the Ardh (Earth); We have Madd it, and set thereon fixing mountains" (Surat Qaf No. 50, verse 7).
The word Madd means: To spread out, to inflate; increase the earth’s surface area (Ibn Katheer, 1994: III: 184; II: 657). Madd can refer to the process of accretion resulting in formation of the earth. The Sun Madd (provides) Earth with energy. Allâh mentions the creation process and mechanism of the earth; from material being added (accreted) to make it. Also the above verses refer to inflation and smoothing of earth’s surface; where it's almost spherical (II: 723). Allâh has enlarged and spread out the Earth (IV: 284).
On the Day of Judgment, earth will be Madd: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd * And casts forth what is within it and becomes -clean- empty" (Surat Al-Inshiqaq No. 84, Verse 3-4). Madd means: Spread out, inflated, have an increased surface area (Ibn Katheer, 1994, IV: 629; al-Tabri, 1995, XV:142; al-Qurtubi, 1996, XIX: 177). Eight hundred years ago, al-Razi has explained this verse: “One has to know that increasing the area of the earth is a must, whether through inflation or accretion” (al-Razi, 1995, XVI: Part 31: 105)! Earth will cast forth its internal metals, and its interior becomes empty (al-Qurtubi, 1996, X: Part 19: 177-178).
Dah’o: is a noun, the verb is daha; daha al-ardh means leveling it. An Arabian woman composed a poem, which means: “Thanks to Allâh for He built the Sama in layers over us. And then Allâh daha al-ardh”: leveled the earth and enlarged it to meet the increasing number of inhabitants, and made it fertile: "And the Ardh (earth), later on, hath He daha * He draweth out therefrom its water and its pasture" (Surah 79, verses 30-31).
Ibn Barri says: Daha al-ardh (Allâh pushed and threw the earth; causing it to move). It moves away from the sun as it gains kinetic energy. Allâh daha the earth until it became leveled and stable; then the mountains were constructed and made stable and fixed on it. In a saying by Ali bin abi Taleb (Prophet's cousin and the fourth Islamic Caliph), “O God! Dahi al-madh’wat” (leveling and enlarging of Ardhean (plural of ardh) is carried out by God.) Also a derived noun from daha is idheyah (the Ostrich’s nest in the sand where she lays its eggs). The Ostrich is known to push and kick the sand by her feet and then she lays eggs in a place where she hatches the eggs and the kittens stay in that idheyah. In ibn Omar’s narrative, “daha al-saiyel in the desert” means (to throw, push and cause the water to run and move).
Ibn al-Musaiyab was asked about dah’o by stones: He replied it’s acceptable. And it means to have a competition to show the winner in throwing of stones. In an earlier context, “The rain daha pebbles from the surface of the earth”: (takes the pebbles away with it). It’s also a characteristic of the rain to push away small stones and pieces of rock. Ibn al-Manzur mentions that it is said to the player of nuts, who daha nuts (throws them), move further away from the goal and make daho of nuts.
Moreover, abi Rafe’ said that he used to entertain al-Hassan and al-Hussain (Ali bin abi Taleb's sons) by playing with madahi; stones like circular loaves. The Arabs used to make holes in the ground and dahou these stones; the player throws into the hole the stones, nuts, etc. Mecca residents used to play with small circular pebbles like loaves to be thrown into holes particularly made for such game. The derivative noun, medhah means a piece of log used by the boy to thrust and sweep away everything comes in its way on the ground.
In another context, the horse daha (hops by raising its front hooves a little bit from the ground). Not only a horse daha but also a camel daha (making like hunters holes while laying on the ground). The word daha also is referred to humans. A man sleeps and daha (lie comfortably). But a man daha a woman (marries her). The noun daho’ is used to refer to someone who has a belly. The word dahyah is also used to mean the leader of a group of soldiers. This leader is qualified and privileged by the boss on the commander who has all the privileges.
To conclude, the Arabic word daho means: Pushing, throwing, and causing to move. It means to make levelly; with smooth even surface; like a spherical surface with large radius. It means to enlarge, extend, to inflate. For Earth, it also means to draw out therefrom its water and its pasture; make fertile and suitable for life.
The meanings of the Arabic words (Anzalna, Daho, Madd) have to be very clear, since they are used through out the text to replace the non-sufficient translation.
God created and constructed Sama (firmaments: forming upper part of universe) and Ardh (interior part of universe) in six periods. Later on, stars and galaxies are formed (Omari, 2002; Omari, 2004): "So He completed them seven Samawat (plural of Sama: Firmaments) In two periods, and He assigned to each Sama its duty and command. And We adorned the lower (closer) Sama with lights, and (provide it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) The exalted in Might, full of knowledge" (Surat Fussilat No. 41, Verse 12).
(Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and Anzalna (revealed) with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And We Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron) wherein is mighty power, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allâh may test who it is that will help Him (His religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allâh is All-Strong, All-Mighty. (Al-Hadid (Iron) 57:25).
áÞÏ åÇáäí ÏÞÉ æÑæÚÉ ÇáÝÞÑÉ ÇáÊÇáíÉº ÅäåÇ æÕÝ ÏÞíÞ ááãÚäì ÇááÛæí áÞæáå ÓÈÍÇäå æÊÚÇáì æÇÕÝÇ ÇáúÍóÏöíÏó Ãäå: (Ýöíåö ÈóÃúÓñ ÔóÏöíÏñ).
"ÞÏ ÊÝßÑ Ýí ÇáæÖÚ Úáì åÐÇ ÇáäÍæ: ÌãíÚ äæì ÇáÚäÇÕÑ ÇáÕÛíÑÉ ÊÑíÏ" Ãä Êäãæ "áÊßæä ãËá ÇáÍÏíÏ¡ æÃäåÇ Úáì ÇÓÊÚÏÇÏ áÏÝÚ ÇáËãä (ÅäÊÇÌ ÇáØÇÞÉ) ãä ÃÌá ÇáæÕæá Åáì åÐÇ ÇáåÏÝ. áßä ÇáÍÏíÏ åæ äæÇÉ äÇÖÌÉ ÐÇÊ ÊÞÏíÑ ÌíÏ áÐÇÊåÇ (ÝÎÑÇð æËÞÉ æÅÚÌÇÈÇð æËÈÇÊÇð). ÅäåÇ Ýí ÃÊã ÇáÑÖÇ æÇáÓÚÇÏÉ æÇáÑÇÍÉ æßãÇá ÇáÅÓÊÞÑÇÑº áÃäåÇ ÍÏíÏ. æÈÇáÊÇáí ÝÅäåÇ ÊÊØáÈ ËãäÇð ÈÇåÖÇð (æÌæÈ ÇãÊÕÇÕ ÇáØÇÞÉ) áÊÛííÑ ÊÑßíÈåÇ Çáäææí ÇáãÓÊÞÑ.
“You might think of the situation like this: all smaller nuclei want to “grow up” to be like iron, and they are willing to pay (produce energy) to move toward that goal. But iron is a mature nucleus with good self-esteem (ÝÎÑ¡ ËÞÉ ¡ÅÚÌÇÈ), perfectly content (ßãÇá ÇáÑÖÇ æÇáÓÚÇÏÉ) being iron; it requires payment (must absorb energy) to change its stable nuclear structure ().”
Nuclear fusion reactions occur in the stars, where heavy elements are produced in a process called nucleosynthesis. The nuclear fusion reactions inside these stars give rise to heavy elements. As the star becomes older, it generates atoms having larger and larger atomic numbers, up through the isotope of iron having A=56. The fuel of each stage may be ignited due to a subsequent gravitational contraction to give the products. Stars with a mass M > 11 MS; MS is the mass of the Sun; are able to achieve the high temperature of about 3x109 K which is necessary for the final stage of thermonuclear fusion. This is Silicon burning which leads to the formation of Iron 56 and nearby elements: "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind." (Surat Al-Hadid (Iron) No. 57, verse 25).
After high-mass stars have nothing but sulfur and silicon in their cores, they further contract and heat until their cores reach the temperature range 2.7–3.5 GK; silicon burning starts at this point. Silicon burning entails the alpha process which creates new elements by adding the equivalent of one helium nucleus (two protons plus two neutrons) per step
The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf which has been accreting matter from a companion is known as a Type Ia supernova, while the core-collapse of massive stars produce Type II, Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae.
The entire silicon-burning sequence lasts about one day and stops when nickel–56 has been produced. Nickel–56 (which has 28 protons) has a half-life of 6.02 days and decays via beta radiation (in this case, "beta-plus" decay, which is the emission of a positron) to cobalt–56 (27 protons), which in turn has a half-life of 77.3 days as it decays to iron–56 (26 protons). However, only minutes are available for the nickel–56 to decay within the core of a massive star. At the end of the day-long silicon-burning sequence, the star can no longer release energy via nuclear fusion because a nucleus with 56 nucleons has the lowest mass per nucleon (proton and neutron) of all the elements in the alpha process sequence. In stars, rapid nucleosynthesis proceeds by adding helium nuclei (alpha particles) to heavier nuclei. Although nuclei with 58 and 62 nucleons have the very lowest binding energy (Figure), fusing a helium nucleus into nickel–56 (14 alphas) to produce the next element — zinc–60 (15 alphas) — actually requires energy in its production rather than releases any. Accordingly, nickel–56 is the last fusion product produced in the core of a high-mass star. Decay of nickel-56 explains the large amount of iron-56 seen in metallic meteorites and the cores of rocky planets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_burning_process).
The verse might refer to the fact that iron and nearby elements have maximum binding nuclear energy per nucleon. Both, Table 1 and (Figure), show that such stars develop an interior structure consisting of seven concentric layers composed mostly of hydrogen, helium, carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon, surrounding a core of iron and nearby elements. For a high mass star, say M = 25 MS, Silicon takes 24 hours to ignite and produce iron in the core. Anzalna iron: Iron accumulates in cores of high mass old stars, and is sent to (remains in) the core for 24 hours (Figure, Figure, Figure).
Table 1 (Phillips, 1994, page 26-28): The main stages of nuclear burning in stars.
0.1 – 0.5
0.5 – 8
8 - 11
Magnesium to Sulphur
Iron and nearby elements
Iron in the core of the star is under an increasing very high pressure. At a density of 1012 kg/m3, the energetic degenerate electrons can enter the iron nuclei and turn one of the protons into: a neutron, and neutrino: . As a result of this inverse beta decay, a neutrino escapes from the core of the star and carries that supporting energy away forever. As the electrons interact with the protons, the inner part of the core is compressed into neutrons (c); the support that had been provided to the inert core is removed. When the core becomes so dense, , the degenerate neutrons pressure stops the collapse, and the core bounces a little to its new radius (d) and form an outward-propagating shock front (red). The shock starts to stall (stand, stop) (e), but it is refreshed (recharged) by a process that may include neutrino interaction. As the shock wave moves through the infalling stellar material; it completely disrupts the star. The surrounding material is blasted away (f), leaving only a degenerate remnant. Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron): The iron core collapses to form a degenerate neutron star (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supernova).
When the shock wave reaches the surface, the star is seen to explode as a supernova. This can be part of many meanings indicated by the Verse. This is clear from above meanings of Anzala and send.
In the process of a supernova, chemical elements up to and surpassing iron (A>56) are synthesized. Corresponding to iron with A=56 and nearby nuclei, binding energy per nucleon is maximum for nuclei that lie along the line of stability (Figure; Figure). For example; see Phillips, 1994, page 26). The BE/A curve reaches a maximum value of 8.79 MeV at A = 56 and decreases to about 7.6 MeV for A = 238 (Figure). Thus an additional energy is required to create elements with A > 56. Reactions producing elements with A=57 (the number of the Surah is 57) are endothermic. The energy required is provided by the supernova explosion that occurs at the end of some large stars’ lives. The supernova explosion releases a large burst of neutrons, which synthesizes in about one second roughly half the elements heavier than iron, via a rapid neutron-capture mechanism. The verse also points to the production of elements having mass higher than iron, and also directs attention to extraction of iron from cores of massive old dieing stars. Both processes require a high energy provided by the supernova explosion.
Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is
Great might)". This is part of Verse number
Question: a) Do these numbers indicate the facts that an additional energy is required to create elements with A > 56? Reactions producing elements with A = 57 (the number of the Surah) are endothermic (Figure).
b) “(And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron)” is part of Verse number 25. The atomic number of iron is 26, which exceeds the number of the Verse by one. Does this difference “one” direct attention to the process of inverse beta decay; which leads to the removal of the support that had been provided to the inert core?
c) Sending Messenger Mohammad is both a necessity, and a sign of closeness of the Day hereafter. Is this similar to sending down iron being an indication of a star ending its life, and the extracted elements being necessary to start a human life somewhere else? “We anzalna aforetime Our Messengers with Clear Signs and anzalna with them the Book and the Balance, that men may stand forth in justice; (And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron)”.
The Verse refers to the facts that: Iron with A = 56 and nearby nuclei, have a maximum binding energy per nucleon when compared to nuclei that lie along the line of stability (Figure, Figure). Thus an additional energy is required to create elements with A > 57; i.e. the reaction is an endothermic (Figure). This energy comes from the supernova explosion that occurs at the end of some large stars’ lives. Consequently, iron is extracted from such stars, and higher mass elements are produced. Finally, iron and other elements are sent to form a life such as our solar system.
The gas cloud, from which our Solar System formed contained heavy metals, therefore must have had some remnant of (probably) several supernova explosions in it.
The time consequence of creation is mentioned by the following verses:
"What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Sama (above)? (Allâh) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection * Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth he bring out (with sun light)". (Surah 79, verses: 27-29).
God created and constructed Sama and Ardh in six periods (Omari, 2002; Omari, 2004). The universe is vast and is expanding as well: "On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection). Also the expansion is indicated by the verse: (We have built The Sama – Firmament - with might. And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - interior part of the Universe, or Earth - : How excellently We do spread out!" (Surah No. 51, verse 47-48). God has constructed Sama via expansion (). We create Sama with vast force and power, and We are able to expand it as We desire (). We elevate it with vast force (al-Zamakhshari, 1977, IV: 20; al-Razi, 1995, IV: 227; Omari, 2002). The universe cools with expansion, and both matter and stars start forming. The universe is also darkened as it expands to avoid a state of thermodynamic equilibrium as indicated by the verse: "Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out -with sun light-" (Surah 79, verse 29). This refers to the fact that an additional extra time was needed for the creation of our sun.
Approximately 5 billion years ago, one of the aging stars in the Milky Way galaxy "exploded", sending a cloud of matter into the galaxy. Most of the lighter elements (hydrogen and helium) rejoined to form our sun, while the heavier elements formed a flattened disk of matter that orbited the newly born star. Atomic and subatomic particles are referred to by God’s saying:
"Nor is hidden from the Lord so much as the weight of an atom on the Ardh or in Sama, And not the subatomic nor the greater" (Surat Yunus No. 10, verse 61). And "From whom (the Lord) is not hidden the least little atom in the Samas or on Ardh: Nor is there anything less than that (subatomic), or greater." (Surat Saba No. 34, verse 3).
When the disk of matter orbiting the newly born sun was about 100 million years old, it began clumping together in a process called collisional accumulation to form larger aggregates of matter. As the size and gravitational pull increased, the stellar debris clumped into millions of planetesimals, which grew into a much smaller number of planetoids, which eventually grew into the nine planets of the solar system, their moons, and a host of other solar system materials.
The word Sama has various meanings. God says: "We have indeed decked the lower Sama with beauty (In) the planets" (Surat As-Saffat No. 37, verse 6). So if lower Sama in this verse means solar system, then the solar system is decked with beauty (In) the planets; as indicated by the verse: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30). Consequently Sama and Ardh are decoupled and become distinct.
The Arabic word Ratq implies that at early stages of the Universe; matter used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution, and both matter and radiation were coupled together (Figure). Later on, God Fatq them: Indicates that matter (hydrogen and helium) had started forming, and the universe became transparent, and matter is no more coupled to radiation (Figure). Later on, when the universe was 1.6 million- 400 million years old, clumping and holding together of matter helped forming stars and galaxies. The verse can also indicate that at early stages, our solar system was not disintegrated into proto sun and planetoids. The primordial planet Earth grew out of bits of gas and dust, aggregating over time into a larger, more solid body (Figure). This is also implied by the word Madd in the Qur’anic verses (Omari: Earths Madd, Arabic translation): "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it" (Surah No. 50, verse 7; Surah No. 15, verse 19), and the verse "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh ( Earth)" (Surah No. 13, verse 3). Earth is formed via accretion of grains in a 4-step process (http://zebu.uoregon.edu/internet/l2.html):
The young Earth was formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. The age of the Earth has been determined by radioactive dating techniques. After the creation of the sun, Allah starts Daho the earth (Omari, 2004), as indicated by the verse:
"What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Sama (above)? (Allâh) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. * Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out (with sunlight). * And Ardh (The earth), later on, hath He daha * He draweth out therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains hath he firmly fixed". (Surah 79, verses 27-32).
Taking into consideration the various meanings of the Arabic words daha and Madd, the above verses indicate that after stars start shining light and the sun is formed, the earth is created and given its shape, and its motion as well. Later on, God draweth out therefrom earth its water and its pasture, And the mountains hath he firmly fixed. The water is needed to cool earth prior to mountains formation as the verse implies (Abi al-Fadhl 1994: XIII: 162, 167; XI: 345; al-Nawawi, 1987).
Massive water reservoir discovered towards Earth's core ():
A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the oceans has been discovered deep beneath the Earth's surface in north America (). The finding could help explain where Earth's seas came from: (Later on, God draweth out therefrom earth its water and its pasture) (Omari 2004).
1. The inner core composed of solid, crystalline iron and nickel. The inner core is mainly iron as indicated by the verse: "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might". Iron is sent down to form the Earths solid inner core.
2. The second layer is the outer core, which is a hot molten iron: Made primarily (as indicated by the above verse) of molten iron, and then of: oxygen, sulfur compounds.
3. The mantle, which is a molten, quasi-liquid layer made up of silicon, aluminum, and magnesium oxides.
4. The crust, composed of lighter elements; mostly silicon and lighter mantle compounds; above the mantle. The crust is composed of two distinct parts - the continental crust, which is made up of low-density granitic rocks such as quartz and feldspar that "float" on top of the mantle, and the oceanic crust, which is the earth below the oceans; composed of basaltic rocks rich in elements from the mantle. And the atmosphere that is composed of variety of gases (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, etc.), which have changed throughout Earth's history:
"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30). If the word Ardh here is to mean earth, then the verse indicates that earth is now formed of distinct layers; meanwhile it was molten at its early stages of formation.
The overall density and mass of the Earth is known based on measurements of how the Earth perturbs the orbits of other planets and the moon. Second, the overall density of the various layers of the Earth is known based upon the way in which seismic pressure waves move through Earth. Third, by examining a shear seismic wave, it is known that the outer part of the core is liquid; Shear waves can't travel through liquids. Fourth, the overall composition of the Earth is known by examining the bulk chemical composition of the Sun. Fifth, the composition of the Earth's crust and its mantle, is known by examining samples of them. For the lower mantle, scientists use experiments of the effect of pressure on upper (shallow) mantle minerals to predict the mineralogy of the lower reaches of the mantle. Then seismic waves are passed through it in the lab to see if experimental rocks match the observations. Sixth, given the size, mass and composition of the whole Earth: its crust, and its mantle, one can see which chemical elements aren't in the crust or mantle that should be on the Earth. These must be in the core. Seven, one recalls that metallic elements in high concentration somewhere in the interior of the Earth are needed to generate it's magnetic field. Also, this metal must be able to be in the liquid state even at very high pressures.
Adding all this up, the core is predominantly iron metal (Fe). It has a significant amount of the element Nickel (Ni, about 4%) and a light element to make it less dense (about 10% by mass). This light element is either mostly oxygen or sulfur, with the arguments for oxygen being more believable in general. With all meanings of anzal, the verse can refer to iron mixing with this light element to make iron less dense.
Looking at the composition of iron meteorites as well, which are remnants of small planetary bodies from early in our solar-system's history that segregated small cores. The composition of these metal alloys match closely what they predict the composition of the core is using Rubin results (http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/earths_core.html).
Recent research is conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by geochemist William Minarik. Using the larger of Livermore's two multi-anvil presses to mimic the pressures and temperatures that exist deep in the Earth, he has shown that metals like those in the Earth's core could not have trickled down. The materials used in the experiments were olivine, a silicate mineral that makes up much of the Earth's upper mantle, and an iron -nickel-sulfur-oxygen combination to represent the core (http://www.llnl.gov/str/Minarik.html).
Despite being molten and much denser than the olivine, the metallic melt showed no signs of separating and draining to the bottom of the capsule. For the molten metal to drip down along the silicate grain edges, it has to be able to wet the edges. But in none of the experiments did wetting occur. Rather, the iron -nickel mixture beaded up at the corners of the silicate grains. Livermore's findings agree with similar, lower-pressure studies that have melted meteorites and iron -nickel-sulfur- oxygen mixtures and failed to wet the silicate minerals. These experiments indicate that much higher temperatures were required to separate the Earth's core and mantle; temperatures high enough to melt most of the Earth:
All of these data lend credence to the theory that the young, growing Earth was repeatedly bombarded by large planetoids, with some of these collisions generating temperatures high enough to form a magma ocean from which drops of dense molten metal separated. The largest collision may have been when a large celestial body, about the size of Mars, collided with Earth nearly 4.5 billion years ago, melting most of it and causing the core and mantle to separate.
The core and mantle separation is part of various meanings that the following verse can indicate; in case ardh means earth. "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).
Also the bombardment of earth by planetoids is inferred from the word Madd (Omari, Earths Madd, Arabic translation), as indicated by the Qur’anic verses: "And the Earth We have Madd it" (Surah No. 50 verse 7; Surah No. 15 verse 19), and "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)" (Surah No. 13, verse 3).
The Qur’anic verses, "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might", can refer to the followings: Great binding gravitational potential energy. Also the interior Earth’s core is a crystal having lowest potential energy; that corresponds to maximum binding energy. Also the molten outer core has a high thermal energy. This Verse, as reads in Arabic, is actually indicating and implying all of these various issues and even more.
The changing thickness of the earth's crust indicates a constant cooling, which indicates that the heat was created at the beginning of the earth's formation. About a billion years ago, all of the continents had come together forming a large super continent called Pangaea (Pangaea). This is part of various meanings that the following verse can indicate; in which case ardh means land: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).
There were no mountains at that time. An "ice age" caused the whole land mass to be covered with ice destroying all terrestrial life. The absence of mountains means the tectonic plates were very thin and light. If they were as thick and heavy as modern plates, they would have buckled and slid over and under each other as they collided to form Pangaea, and mountains would have been the result. Since the plates were thin and light, they just welded together as they collided: "And The Ardh (earth), later on, hath He daha * He draweth out therefrom its water and its pasture, * And the mountains hath he firmly fixed)". (Surah 79, verses 30-32). The extraction of earths water contributed to its cooling off, which in turn enhanced the mountains formation.
For example, a significant earthquake occurred in central South Dakota in 1983. Earthquakes were supposed to be impossible in the area, because there is supposedly one continuous sheet of granite under the entire state. Earth quakes are caused by two plates sliding past each other. It means there are two plates which fit together so precisely that they look like one. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that there are two very distinct soil types above each plate.
So the tectonic plates were thin and light in earlier times, and now they are getting thick and heavy. This means the earth is losing heat, and the heat in the earth's core must have been there at the beginning of the earth's creation. The heat apparently resulted from small particles gravitating toward a center, and the process of colliding and compressing created heat through friction. Again, this is indicated by the word Madd in the Qur’anic verses (Omari: Earths Madd, Arabic translation): "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it; And set thereon fixing mountains standing firm" (Surah No. 50 verse 7; Surah No. 15 verse 19), and the verse "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth); And set thereon fixing mountains standing firm, and rivers" (Surah No. 13, verse 3). Here, Madd can mean accretion. It also means Inflation, which increases both: Earth’s surface and its cooling rate, and as a result mountains are formed. Earths contraction as a result of cooling is also indicated by the verse "See they not that We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, land) from its outlying border?" (Surat Ar-Ra’d No.13, verse 41).
Additional evidence is in the observation that planets which are farther away from the sun are losing heat faster than they are acquiring it from the sun. They apparently acquired their heat during their creation.
Heat in the core of planets cannot be entirely due to nuclear reactions, because that source would require a gradual build-up rather than a gradual loss of heat. However, nuclear reactions could be occurring in the core, because heat and pressure should promote them. But then they must be producing heat at a lower rate than it is being lost through radiation into space. Otherwise, there would not be the observed cool-down.
The nuclear binding energy per nucleon has a maximum value for iron 56 and nearby elements (Figure; Figure). So iron has a very stable nuclear structure. With the stable iron being the dominant element in Earths core, > 90%, the life on planet Earth will be safe. Those facts are implicit in the Verse: "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind" (Surat Al-Hadid (Iron) No. 57, verse 25).
Also, iron is an element that can help promote a healthy and efficient immune system. It is a component of enzymes found within immune cells that chew up foreign substances. Iron is also involved in the entire process of respiration. It is needed for oxidative phosphorylation and is a key component in hemoglobin (http://www.eniva.com/products/mfl_iron.html).
Using meteorites and seismological evidence as clues, scientists have known that the Earth has a solid, mostly iron, inner core and a molten outer core with a mantle and crust of rocky, silicate material. The solid inner core of iron is the size of the Moon, and the outer liquid core rich in iron is the size of Mars. The evidence of an irregular boundary between the liquid core and the bottom of the rocky mantle comes mostly from studying how seismic waves travel through the earth (http://www.llnl.gov/str/Minarik.html).
Most scientists agree that Earth's magnetic field arises from
convection currents in the liquid outer core, a good conductor of electricity.
These currents constitute an amplifying, self-sustaining "geodynamo." Convection probably
starts as iron crystallizes on the surface of the inner core, about
Here the lighter components cool and condense as slushy sediments. Muller theorizes that tens of meters of these buoyant sediments accumulate each million years, "falling" upward onto the uneven topography at the base of the mantle. Even if the slopes of the Core-Mantle Boundary hills are shallow, like sand dunes; eventually the sediments will slip and slide.
"It's a little like an avalanche on the sea floor, where mud mixes with water, causing turbidity flow," Muller says (Muller, 2002). The turbid mixture of cool sediments and hot liquid iron causes cooled-off, denser iron to sink back toward the inner core; which is likely indicated by the word Anzalna from the verse.
High-temperature, high-pressure experiments conducted by University of Chicago scientists, led by Jung-Fu Lin, suggest that the Earth's inner core largely consists of two exotic forms of iron instead of only one. These exotic forms of iron now appear to be alloyed with silicon.
"Earth may not be quite as simple as we think in its very deepest parts," said Dion Heinz, Associate Professor in Geophysical Sciences. Lin, Heinz, and fellow University of Chicago co-authors Andrew Campbell, James Devine and Guoyin Shen report their findings in today's issue of the journal Science. Scientists had previously deduced that Earth's core consists largely of iron. "Meteorites tell us that iron is a very abundant element in the solar system," Heinz said. The Earth's magnetic field further indicates that the core must be made of a conducting substance. Iron is the only element that is abundant enough and which also conducts at the high pressures and temperatures characteristic of Earth's core. This is likely indicated by the word Anzalna from the verse.
Seismologists have noticed that there has to be about 10 percent weight of a lighter element in the outer core and anywhere from zero to 4 percent weight of a lighter element in the inner core," Heinz explained. The lighter element in the core could be oxygen, sulfur, silicon, hydrogen or carbon. "Oxygen, sulfur and silicon are the three most-studied light elements," Lin said. "Hydrogen and carbon aren't well-studied, yet some studies have shown that these two elements can be ruled out because of their high-pressure properties."
A 1995 study by researchers at the University of California, Santa Cruz, seemed to rule out silicon, as well. That study was based on a compound containing an equal amount of iron and silicon. But it now appears that a lesser proportion of silicon is more appropriate for understanding the possible effect of silicon on the properties of iron under conditions at Earth's core. The Chicago study now makes silicon the leading candidate, Lin said, because of its high level of abundance in the solar system, because it more readily alloys with iron, and because of its ability to lower the density of iron under high pressure. The word Anzalna in the verse might also points to the ability of silicon to lower density of iron under high pressure.
“Iron has great might” means: Arms like swords, knives, shields, arrows, etc. “It has benefits for mankind” mean: Tools to be used for making a living, axe, spade, knife, needle, saw and all other machines used for ploughing, cooking, weaving and making bread (Ibn Katheer, IV:403; al-Tabri, 1995 vol. 27, pp. 207-08). There is a “great might” in iron, and many benefits for mankind. The benefits include what people need when they confront their enemies; like arms and ammunition.
Also, in the translation of the meaning of Qur’an (Mushaf Al-Madinah, p 1697), the statement “in which is (material for) mighty war” is a translation to what some commentators said; while trying to explain this Verse. This statement is actually nothing but one of many aspects that the Verse can address at a time. Also Al-Hilali translates it differently (Al-Hilali, 1398 Hijri, p 994). For us being aware of various scientific facts, we can achieve a better understanding of such a Verse, addressing clear physical facts. The more knowledge we have, the better and more accurate understanding to Qur’an is gained.
Nonbelievers' punishment is described by the verse: "In addition there will be maces of iron (to punish) them." (Verse 21, Al-Hajj No. 22). With iron having maximum binding energy per nucleon, it can tolerate the extremely high temperature of Hell fire, and it will be the most abundant element in Hell. As such, Qur'an says: “maces of iron”. The nonbelievers are beaten and stuck on their heads with tools made of iron by Hell’s guardian angels if those unbelievers are to attempt to get out and leave Hell; so they’ll be immortal there (al-Tabri, 1995, XVII: 177). Tools of iron are used to despise the unbelievers and make them unable to escape or find an exit. The verse also points to the fact that iron is the most abundant element in hell. Because of its “great might”, iron is the most endurable element for the hell’s high temperature; because of its high nuclear binding energy.
It will be said to unbelievers: "Thou wast heedless of this, now have We removed thy veil, and iron is thy sight this Day!" (Surah No. 50, verse 22). “Thou wast heedless of this” means: of this day, the Day of Judgment where everyone including the unbelievers have iron (sharp) is their sight. Of course, the unbelievers wouldn’t benefit anything from having this iron (sharp) sight. On Doomsday, your sight will be very sharp and aware about all matters that were ambiguous and unclear in this life. In another interpretation, the unbelievers will have iron sight but soon will be blind to recognize anything (al-Qurtubi, 1996. Vol. 27, p. 12).
Since eye is a mean of recognition, realization and comprehension, it seems that on the hereafter, the eye of the nonbelievers is made of iron literally not figuratively; so that the individual will be able to recognize all various types of torture and pain inflicted in hell. Iron has the maximum binding energy per nucleon, and whence is qualified to tolerate the extremely high temperatures in hell. If the eye is made of flesh and blood, it won’t be able to see various inflicted pains and tortures. Allâh says: “Those who reject Our Signs, We shall soon cast into the Fire; as often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the Penalty: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.”. Moreover, the nonbelievers human eye in its present state won’t see in Hell; because of the high temperature; where emitted photons will be gamma and (or) hard x-ray.
This Qur’anic Verse “(And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might as well as many benefits for mankind” has a number of implications: Iron accumulates in cores of high mass old stars. The iron core collapses to form a degenerate neutron star. Consequently, a shock wave moves through the infalling stellar material and completely disrupts the star. The Verse also directs attention to the fact that high energy is required to produce chemical elements higher than iron; endothermic reaction. The verse also emphasizes the extraction of iron from cores of massive old dying stars. Both processes require a high energy provided by the supernova explosion. Finally, iron and other elements are sent to form our solar system. Iron A=56 and nearby elements have maximum binding energy per nucleon (Figure, Figure). Iron and nickel nuclei have the largest binding energies per nucleon as compared to all nuclei. The fusion of two nuclei to produce an element having lower mass than iron generally releases energy, while the fusion of nuclei to produce an element heavier than iron absorbs energy. Reactions producing elements having A = 57 are endothermic. This is implied by the number of the Surah; 57. The atomic number of iron; 26; exceeds the number of the Verse; 25; by one. This difference “one” might direct attention to the process of inverse beta decay; which leads to the removal of the support that had been provided to the inert core: .
Inverse beta decay is one of the steps in nuclear fusion processes that produce energy inside stars.
This Verse, as reads in Arabic, is actually implying that much higher temperatures were required to separate the Earth's core and mantle; temperatures high enough to melt most of the Earth. The Verse points to the deep gravitational potential energy of the iron Earth’s core, and its great heat thermal energy as well. The Verse might also indicate the ability of silicon to lower density of iron under high pressure.
Iron is essential for earth’s magnetic field; which helps to determine directions. Also field’s geometry, magnetic mirror, is important for protection from harmful cosmic rays (figure, figure). Earthquakes are caused by two plates sliding past each other, which can be caused by hot iron convective currents in the outer core “in which is Great might”.
The author is very grateful to Professor James Imamura; ITS director at Physics Department; University of Oregon; for his valuable suggestions.
) References: Science 13 June 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6189 pp. 1265-1268 . DOI: 10.1126/science.1253358 . Authors: Brandon Schmandt, Dept of Earth and Planetary Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Steven D. Jacobsen, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA. Thorsten W. Becker, Dept of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA . Zhenxian Liu, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA. Kenneth G. Dueker, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.
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